- CT Tax & Admin.: Order to DoC employees to their search cell phones for public records was excessive
- N.D.N.Y.: Mere disagreement with state court 4A determination still bars habeas review
- E.D.N.C.: Removing protective sweep from affidavit for SW still leaves PC
- TN: No right to reconsideration of denial of motion to suppress on transfer to a different trial judge after denial
- CA6: Officer executing a state arrest warrant doesn’t have to independently verify its validity
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Staleness
A SnapChat video of defendant with a gun two days earlier was probable cause for a search warrant. Commonwealth v. Watkins, 2020 Mass. App. LEXIS 139 (Sept. 16, 2020). “Plaintiffs’ Amended Complaint asserts a Fourth Amendment claim for unreasonable search … Continue reading
The information for the search warrant was not stale: “In this light, the information about child abuse was not stale. Indeed, the character of the alleged crime—abuse of a child—was grounds for continuing concern.” As to continuing a traffic stop: … Continue reading
Defendant had no reasonable expectation of privacy not to have a tattoo on his chest under his shirt photographed on his arrest. Therefore, defense counsel wasn’t ineffective for not raising it. Shumpert v. United States, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 149584 … Continue reading
Failure to get a ruling on a search claim in the trial court is waiver of the issue for appeal. People v. Collins, 2020 NY Slip Op 04517, 2020 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 4610 (1st Dept. Aug. 13, 2020). Drug … Continue reading
The six week delay between the probable cause and the issuance of the search warrant for one drug possession was stale, and no reasonable officer could have concluded there was. Therefore, the good faith exception doesn’t apply. United States v. … Continue reading
A search warrant for a blood sample implicitly includes testing it. Davis v. State, 2020 Tex. App. LEXIS 5990 (Tex. App. – Houston (1st Dist.) July 30, 2020). Probable cause existed for seizure of five years of defendant’s Gmail account. … Continue reading
E.D.Wis.: Six week delay in getting SW for electronics was reasonable; affidavit for SW showed scope of investigation
A six week delay between seizure of electronic devices and then seeking a warrant was reasonable. There likely was probable cause based on the seizure, but the affidavit for the warrant showed what the officers were doing in their “robust” … Continue reading
CA10: Unappealed suppression order from one district collateral estoppel on reindictment on same facts in a different district
Defendant was indicted for child pornography, and the district court suppressed. The government appealed but dismissed the appeal without filing a brief. In the district court it dismissed the indictment. Later, on the same evidence from the same search warrant, … Continue reading
When defendant was stopped and found to have a suspended license, the normal incidents of a traffic stop are accordingly extended, and that didn’t make waiting for a drug dog unreasonable. Olmeda v. Commonwealth, 2020 Ky. App. LEXIS 40 (Apr. … Continue reading
Cal.: Forgetting to take something under SW and getting another and coming back in days didn’t make it stale
Defendant’s alleged unlawful detention by the feds didn’t create a Fourth Amendment claim to suppress his statement to state officials while in custody. Police had at least four other ways to find defendant’s cell phone number, which they did to … Continue reading
Defendant was entitled to a search warrant rather than a search warrant to obtain his telephone records. United States v. McClain, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 55427 (W.D. N.Y. Mar. 30, 2020). The search warrant application for child pornography wasn’t at … Continue reading
Defendant’s prior admission in the proceedings that an omission from the affidavit for a state search warrant was just negligent served to now deny a Franks challenge. Waiting eight days to serve the warrant did not make it stale either … Continue reading
There is no per se staleness. A new warrant for defendant’s DNA alleging it was previously drawn in 2005 and 2007 and matched wasn’t stale. How does DNA change? It doesn’t. United States v. Williams, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 38735 … Continue reading