- NYT: An American Citizen Is Released From Immigration Custody After Nearly a Month
- NYT: Barr Revives Encryption Debate, Calling on Tech Firms to Allow for Law Enforcement
- D.Ariz.: Affidavit of another didn’t show offer of proof for standing
- E.D.Mich.: Ptf’s guilty plea was collateral estoppel to his § 1983 search claim
- M.D.Fla.: When the automobile exception applies and def is in custody, a SW still isn’t required
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Staleness
E.D.Mich.: Second SW issued three weeks after first had no additional information to overcome staleness; no GFE
Defendant was the target of a search warrant. Three weeks later, police obtained another search warrant using the prior information attempted to be supplemented by defendant’s Facebook page. There was also a failed controlled buy there. There was insufficient new … Continue reading
D.Minn.: Four month old information about guns in a drug SW on three day old information wasn’t stale
The affidavit for search warrant mentioned methamphetamine as something to be seized, and there was probable cause for it. Four month old information about firearms on the premises in a drug search warrant on information 72 hours old wasn’t stale … Continue reading
Nexus was shown to the house searched because defendant was known to have stashed burglary proceeds there before. [A good lack of standing argument could have been made and was unnecessary.] State v. Adams, 2019 Iowa App. LEXIS 574 (June … Continue reading
The officer’s failure to include in the affidavit that the CI was searched before going in is a matter for the issuing judge to consider. “Here, the lack of information regarding the credibility of the purchasers as well as the … Continue reading
A two year old incriminating e-mail was not stale for a child pornography search warrant. State v. ShaskusState v. ShaskusState v. Shaskus, 2019-Ohio-2190, 2019 Ohio App. LEXIS 2273 (10th Dist. June 4, 2019). Defense counsel acted reasonably in foregoing appealing … Continue reading
W.D.N.Y.: PC was shown in the affidavit; the possibility of another innocent explanation doesn’t undermine PC
There was probable cause for issuance of the search warrant for defendant’s house. The possibility of another explanation doesn’t mean there isn’t probable cause. “The defendant argues that the facts are equally consistent with the possibility that the narcotics were … Continue reading
14 hour old information for a probation search was not stale. State v. Stenhoff, 2019 ND 106 (Apr. 11, 2019). Defendant didn’t preserve his search issues for appeal under state law. “In attempting to reserve the question of whether Defendant … Continue reading
MA: Six month old info of possession of a gun requires something else to show it was ongoing to not be stale
A single firearm seen in the house six months before the search warrant was sought, without some evidence possession was ongoing, wasn’t enough to overcome staleness. Commonwealth v. Hart, 2019 Mass. App. LEXIS 43 (Apr. 11, 2019):
Unlicensed and unauthorized driver of rental car had no standing under Byrd. United States v. Lyle, 2019 U.S. App. LEXIS 9457 (2d Cir. Apr. 1, 2019). Defendant signed a search waiver as a condition of community control, and that was … Continue reading
The state didn’t make a sufficient showing required by NY law that the CI actually existed. The motion to suppress should have been granted. People v. Givans, 2019 NY Slip Op 02220, 2019 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 2237 (4th Dept. … Continue reading
Where there were two bank robberies allegedly attributable to defendant (September 2 and October 23, 2014). The search warrant issued after the latter could seek information and evidence from the former because it was apparently an ongoing operation. Even if … Continue reading
No Missouri case deals with the question of particularity in a cell phone search. One group finds “all data” warrants not particular. Others hold such warrants valid if the crime under investigation is also mentioned. Here it was mentioned to … Continue reading