- 15th anniversary of this blog; 257th anniversary of Otis’ argument in Paxton’s Case
- Criminal defense lawyers as privacy advocates
- ACLU: New Data Reveals Milwaukee Police Stops Are About Race and Ethnicity
- The Intercept: Confidential ICE Handbook Lays Out Paths for Investigators to Avoid Constitutional Challenges
- KY: Police use of license plate reader violates no REP
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Burden of pleading
D.Minn.: Govt pinned its vehicle search on lack of standing and lost, so vehicle search suppressed; house search, however, shown to be by consent
Even though somebody else owned the van, defendant was a regular user and that gave him standing. At the time of the seizure, it had broken down, and he used it then for storage. The government failed to show any … Continue reading
Defendant’s juvenile son was selling from his dad’s stash. After the son’s arrest, he gave up his source. Defendant can’t raise violations of his son’s Fourth and Fifth Amendment or statutory rights as a juvenile to challenge the probable cause … Continue reading
OR: Def’s motion to suppress that he was subjected to an “unlawful warrantless arrest” sufficiently put the state on notice that it had to show PC
Defendant was walking four blocks from the area of a disturbance talking on a cell phone. When officers confronted him and commanded he stop, he “bladed up” and reached for a back pocket, making the officers fear he was armed. … Continue reading
D.Nev.: Court gave a Franks hearing, but def didn’t make offer of proof to get one and failed on proof
Defendant got a suppression hearing to put on proof of a Franks violation, and he fails to show with any proof that the statements were reckless or material. Perhaps the court should have never ordered a hearing for a lack … Continue reading
The trial court’s denial of the motion to suppress couldn’t be considered on appeal because the record of the hearing was never filed for the appeal. State v. Tscheiner, 2017-Ohio-7641, 2017 Ohio App. LEXIS 3962 (2d Dist. Sept. 15, 2017). … Continue reading
OH: Def has no standing in place of another that he was arrested in, so Steagald provides him no relief
Defendant could not show he had a reasonable expectation of privacy in the premises of a third person, although he was the person being looked for. The court discusses Steagald and the Ninth Circuit’s en banc Underwood (1983, Treatise §§ … Continue reading
“Consistent with this precedent, we find the officers did not subject Appellant to a seizure when they approached him in a public place and asked him what was inside his bag. The interaction remained a mere encounter as the officers … Continue reading
Arguing that one’s arrest violated the Fourth Amendment didn’t preserve his lack of probable cause claim on appeal. Doremus v. State, 2017 Tex. App. LEXIS 7702 (Tex. App. – Houston (14th Dist.) Aug. 15, 2017). The affidavits in support of … Continue reading
CA5: Ptf in a 4A § 1983 case has to plead violation of a “clearly established right” to get over QI in complaint
Although an arrestee adequately alleged that members of a parish council and sheriff’s office maliciously conspired to prosecute him under an unconstitutional statute in retaliation for online comments about council members, his right was not clearly established because there was … Continue reading
Claims of particularity and scope of search have to be raised and litigated in the trial court to appeal them. State v. Terrell, 2017-Ohio-7097, 2017 Ohio App. LEXIS 3224 (2d Dist. Aug. 4, 2017). Tossing a gun in flight from … Continue reading
The officer knew he was outside his territorial jurisdiction when he made a stop of a suspect DUI, but this doesn’t violate the Ohio Constitution. State v. Curran, 2017-Ohio-7008, 2017 Ohio App. LEXIS 3130 (6th Dist. July 28, 2017). Lack … Continue reading
Defendant preserved his argument that officer safety was not a valid justification in his memorandum of law, and that put the state and the trial court on notice that was an issue the state had to address, and didn’t. State … Continue reading