- CA11: No jurisdiction to enjoin investigation after execution of SW
- The Epoch Times: Google Gave FBI Location Data for Over 5,000 Devices in Jan. 6 Probe
- S.D.Ind.: Forced Covid test didn’t violate 4A
- CA4: Video showed district court’s findings of reasonableness clearly erroneous
- CA3: Fire scene search for potential spread was exigent
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"It is a pleasant world we live in, sir, a very pleasant world. There are bad people in it, Mr. Richard, but if there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers."
—Charles Dickens, “The Old Curiosity Shop ... With a Frontispiece. From a Painting by Geo. Cattermole, Etc.” 255 (1848)
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Monthly Archives: February 2020
Reason: Bivens Liability and Its Alternatives by Will Baude (“If the Court is going to abolish the 20th century remedies, can we at least have the 19th century remedies back?”)
“[W]e conclude that Fernandez made no showing at trial of an invasion of his own rights to establish he had standing to complain of the State’s use of the writ of attachment to secure the attendance for trial of complaining … Continue reading
NH: When an overdose call is made to 911, it isn’t unreasonable for a police officer to enter with EMTs or the FD
When an overdose call is made to 911, it isn’t unreasonable for a police officer to enter with EMTs or the fire department. State v. Eldridge, 2020 N.H. LEXIS 18 (Feb. 19. 2020):
“The underlying facts in the affidavit compare the actions of Tualua with the actions of the people who committed the prior EZ Pawn robberies, which would allow the issuing judge to make his or her own conclusions. Under the totality … Continue reading
WaPo: ICE runs facial-recognition searches on millions of Md. drivers, alarming immigration and privacy activists
WaPo: ICE runs facial-recognition searches on millions of Md. drivers, alarming immigration and privacy activists by Drew Harwell and Erin Cox (“Maryland defied federal guidelines in 2013 when it created driver’s licenses for undocumented immigrants. But in recent years, Immigration … Continue reading
The collective knowledge doctrine doesn’t require every officer to know everything. Pueblo v. Jiméne, 2020 PR App. LEXIS 278 (P.R. App. Jan. 30, 2020). (That, of course, is evident from the word “collective.”). A year typo in the affidavit’s narrative … Continue reading
A single trash pull that produced some evidence of limited possession at a duplex with one trash container was still probable cause with nexus to defendant. United States v. Hogan, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 30039 (M.D. Tenn. Feb. 21, 2020). … Continue reading
TX11: Automobile exception doesn’t permit a vehicle search after the object of the search has been recovered
The automobile exception did not apply where defendant was stopped for an alleged theft and the property was recovered before the search occurred, thereby obviating it. State v. Whitman, 2020 Tex. App. LEXIS 1481 (Tex. App. – Eastland Feb. 21, … Continue reading
The border search exception applies to travel to and from the Virgin Islands, no matter which way the traveler is going. United States v. Baxter, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 5341 (3d Cir. Feb. 21, 2020). Detention center officer’s two-handed shove … Continue reading
D.N.M.: SWs are seldom perfect; the question is where there is a reasonable belief in facts supporting a search
“The process of obtaining a search warrant exists to ensure that officers first gather sufficient facts indicating criminal activity before scouring through private property. Though search warrants are not always perfect or as specific as courts might like, the process … Continue reading
Security Boulevard: Personal Data Collection: Outsourcing Surveillance by Mark Rasch (“The buying and selling of personal data means more entities are able to conduct surveillance without needing a warrant”)
E.D.Mich.: Navarette-like stop was reasonable in shots fired call and that also supported vehicle search for weapon under Long
“Navarette supports a finding of reasonable suspicion here. In light of the totality of the circumstances, including that officers spotted the white pickup in close proximity to the park soon after being dispatched, the court finds that the 911 call … Continue reading
CA1: Def lacked standing to challenge search of a shed actually done under authority of bail condition
Defendant was stopped by officers with “beyond” reasonable suspicion he was dealing drugs. The stop was not unreasonably long, and defendant incriminated himself pre-Miranda. Defendant lacked standing to challenge the search of a shed. The justification for the search was … Continue reading
CA1: Alleged overseizure of email under SW would only require partial suppression; def doesn’t identify that which was overseized
Defendant’s motion to suppress electronic data acquired by a Rule 41(e)(2)(B) search warrant on his email account was properly denied. Based on the absence of a time limit in the warrant, it was not unreasonable to interpret the warrant to … Continue reading
Defendant’s unsworn motion for a Franks hearing fails to identify the materiality of the alleged misstatement and that it was knowingly false. Setting up a “swearing match” for a hearing doesn’t satisfy Franks. United States v. Figueroa-Rivera, 2020 U.S. Dist. … Continue reading
TX9: Witness and ADAs allegedly providing false information for SWs are absolutely immune from civil cases
Witnesses who had provided affidavits in the underlying criminal case were entitled to absolute witness immunity, regardless of whether they gave false testimony. Prosecutors in that case who allegedly participated in falsifying evidence and writing a perjured search warrant were … Continue reading
IEEE Spectrum: AI Deception: When Your Artificial Intelligence Learns to Lie by Heather Roff (“We need to understand the kinds of deception an AI agent may learn on its own before we can start proposing technological defenses”)