- CA3: FBI notice of being “armed and dangerous” justified stop and furtive movement a frisk
- FL3: Some discretion in the seizing officers as to what should be seized was not unreasonable or a lack of particularity
- OH5: 911 call of man carrying long gun on street wasn’t RS
- CA11: SI of notebook in def’s purse was reasonable without PC as to it
- NJ: Once SW issues for cell phone, foregone conclusion exception to self-incrimination applies and password can be compelled
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Monthly Archives: July 2019
Defendant was placed on probation in Arizona, and he was subject to suspicionless searches there. He transferred probation to Nevada under the Interstate Compact for probationers, but Nevada required reasonable suspicion. He knew he was subject to the probation conditions … Continue reading
CA1: Police chief’s order to officer to turn over cellphone and home phone records not a constitutional violation under third-party doctrine; chief gets qualified immunity
Plaintiff is a police officer, and the chief ordered production of his cell phone and home phone records in an internal investigation. The chief gets qualified immunity because of the third party doctrine. Those records were obtainable by subpoena from … Continue reading
S.D.W.Va.: Computer SW for drugs led to healthcare fraud evidence; second SW needed; exclusionary rule should apply to deter
The government had a search warrant of ESI for drugs. When the search warrant was executed, they found evidence of healthcare billing fraud. A second search warrant was required, citing the government’s own search manual [noted and linked on the … Continue reading
Fix Congress First: Federal Government Seizure of President Trump’s New York State Individual Tax Returns is Most Likely a Violation of the Fourth Amendment
Fix Congress First: Federal Government Seizure of President Trump’s New York State Individual Tax Returns is Most Likely a Violation of the Fourth Amendment by Don Suarez, arguing that Carpenter applies: “We hold only that a warrant is required in … Continue reading
Legal Intelligencer: Commentary: Coming Face-to-Face With Facial Recognition Technology by Jeffrey N. Rosenthal and Huaou Yan: Facial technology identifies an image of a face by breaking down the depicted face into several characteristics (e.g., the relative position, shape, contours and … Continue reading
911 caller whose number was recorded wasn’t truly anonymous, and the information was detailed and first hand. Even if anonymous, it was still reliable enough. State v. Gregory, 2019-Ohio-3000, 2019 Ohio App. LEXIS 3093 (2d Dist. July 26, 2019):
OH2: Def’s case was pending when Carpenter decided, so he gets benefit of it, but there was exigency for ping
Defendant was arrested in 2016 for a murder. He raised a CSLI issue, and he was tried after Carpenter was decided. He gets the benefit of Carpenter because his case was still pending when it came down. Nevertheless, there was … Continue reading
WaPo: A police department is handing out coupons, not tickets, to people who follow the law. Not everyone is thrilled.
WaPo: A police department is handing out coupons, not tickets, to people who follow the law. Not everyone is thrilled. By Antonia Noori Farzan:
WaPo:Analysis: The Trump administration wants to be able to break into your encrypted data. Here’s what you need to know.
WaPo:Analysis: The Trump administration wants to be able to break into your encrypted data. Here’s what you need to know. By Tim Maurer and Garrett Hinck: And so do governments around the world.
IL: Chicago PD’s “investigative alert” arrest is without judicially approved PC and unconstitutional
“Cordell Bass was arrested solely on the authority of what the Chicago Police Department calls an ‘investigative alert.’ Department regulations allow officers to arrest people on the basis of an alert where there is probable cause to believe the suspect … Continue reading
A state telephonic search warrant was issued based on allegations that defendant was a felon in possession of a firearm. The fact he got a suspended sentence and it was omitted from the application for the warrant isn’t material. United … Continue reading
This was not even a traffic stop, although it appeared one to the defendant. Actually, it was based on a CI’s information involving drugs and was with probable cause, so the extension of the stop with reasonable suspicion didn’t even … Continue reading
DYS obtained an inspection order to enter petitioner’s house, but it was issued without specific probable cause to believe any specific acts were occurring inside. Probable cause was required for the order to enter. In the Interest of D.R., 2019 … Continue reading
WSJ: Feds Consider Allowing Body Cameras in Joint Task Forces by Sadie Gurman and Dan Frosch: Possible change comes after police complain about conflicts between their use of body cameras and federal law enforcement’s ban on them.
WaPo: She delivered $200 worth of drugs. Police seized her $53,000 Chevrolet Tahoe. by Justin Jouvenal:
The mere fact the car was rented provided no indication to the officer that the defendant wasn’t permitted to drive it, thus no reasonable suspicion from that. Thus, the stop was unreasonably extended without reasonable suspicion. When the detention is … Continue reading