- Reason: ‘Everything Has Been Criminalized,’ Says Neil Gorsuch as He Pushes for Stronger Fourth Amendment Protections
- PA: With MMJ, smell of MJ alone isn’t PC for search of a car; more required
- GA: Contraband in plain view on def’s property didn’t justify warrantless entry to seize it
- W.D.Wash.: iCloud SW temporal limit was impractical
- D.Nev.: “Seeming[ly] strategic activation and deactivation of the body camera” leads to finding of no consent
online since Feb. 24, 2003
WebPage Visits: real non-robot hits since 2010; approx. about 30,000 posts since 2003
Fourth Amendment cases,
citations, and links
Latest Slip Opinions:
U.S. Supreme Court (Home)
Federal Appellate Courts Opinions
FDsys, many district courts, other federal courts
Military Courts: C.A.A.F., Army, AF, N-M, CG, SF
State courts (and some USDC opinions)
Advanced Google Scholar
Google search tips
LII State Appellate Courts
LexisONE free caselaw
Findlaw Free Opinions
To search Search and Seizure on Lexis.com $
S. Ct. Docket
Solicitor General's site
Briefs online (but no amicus briefs)
Oyez Project (NWU)
"On the Docket"–Medill
S.Ct. Monitor: Law.com
S.Ct. Com't'ry: Law.com
General (many free):
Google Scholar | Google
LexisOne Legal Website Directory
Lexis.com (criminal law/ 4th Amd) $
Findlaw.com (4th Amd)
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Resources
FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download)
DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)
Stringrays (ACLU No. Cal.) (pdf)
Congressional Research Service:
--Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)
ACLU on privacy
Electronic Frontier Foundation
NACDL’s Domestic Drone Information Center
Electronic Privacy Information Center
Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
Section 1983 Blog
"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
Website design by Wally Waller, Little Rock
Monthly Archives: September 2019
KY: Def’s car search lacked PC; not def’s burden to show state lacked exigency, it’s the state’s burden to show it
The search of defendant’s car was completely unjustified. The car was parked and he was sitting in it. The officer was curious and approached to talk to him. Nothing was seen suggesting crime was “a foot.” The state’s argument that … Continue reading
Defendant received VA benefits for 100% disability. A follow-up visit was required to verify and he failed to show. As a result, it was downgraded to 70% which was a loss of about 3/4ths of his benefits. He was told … Continue reading
When the state relies on inventory to justify a search of a car, it has to put on proof that the inventory policy was followed and that it was done in good faith. State v. Beasley, 2019-Ohio-3936, 2019 Ohio App. … Continue reading
Wired: The Ringification of Suburban Life by Louise Matsakis (“Consumer surveillance cameras are everywhere now, and they’re capturing moments we otherwise would never have known happened.”)
NYTimes: Stormy Daniels Reaches $450,000 Settlement Over 2018 Strip Club Arrest by Emily S. Rueb (No further comment required.)
“Over the past several years, nearly half of our Sister States and this Commonwealth have legalized medical marijuana. Some States have also repealed their prohibitions against recreational use; Pennsylvania has not. [¶] In this appeal, John Batista makes the novel … Continue reading
A search warrant for a cell phone includes the SD card in it, just the same as a computer search warrant authorizes the search of the hard drive: “Such reasoning is analogous to the instant matter. For one, a micro … Continue reading
Defendant was convicted of violating an order of protection for speaking disparagingly about the other person. She made the comment from her curtilage to her husband but loud enough to be heard across the street where the other person lived. … Continue reading
OH2: Road rage: Panicked driver’s pointing out car that pointed gun justified stop under Navarette and Long permitted protective search for weapon
“Based upon the informant’s face-to-face, contemporaneous, and panicked report of a startling event (the waving of a gun in the vehicle directly behind Underwood’s cruiser), we conclude that the informant’s tip was reliable. This reliability allowed Underwood ‘to credit the … Continue reading
LA: Two Rodriguez violations: car searched for weapon without RS then female officer called for a body search
Defendant was detained unreasonably without reasonable suspicion and then her car was searched for a weapon but none was found. Then the detaining officer called for a female officer to conduct a search of her person. “Because reasonable suspicion was … Continue reading
Courthouse News Service: Judge Blocks ICE From Using Flawed Databases to Detain Immigrants by Jon Parton:
Forbes: Do Food Trucks Have Fourth Amendment Rights? Supreme Court Could Decide In Chicago GPS Tracker Case
Forbes: Do Food Trucks Have Fourth Amendment Rights? Supreme Court Could Decide In Chicago GPS Tracker Case by Nick Sibilla:
Forbes: Sleeper Supreme Court Case Could Make Suing Rogue Federal Agents Almost Impossible by Nick Sibilla:
“On the strength of Rhodes, we hold law enforcement officers satisfy KRS 189A.105(2), which requires a suspected drunk driver be ‘informed’ of specific rights and consequences associated with Kentucky’s implied consent law as expressed in KRS 189A.103, by reading the … Continue reading
Defendant in his post-conviction petition doesn’t show sufficient falsity to undermine the search warrant. State v. Edwards, 2019 Ohio App. LEXIS 3977 (10th Dist. Sept. 26, 2019).* Factual disputes preclude appeal of a denial of qualified immunity to a police … Continue reading
Defendant’s laptop was stolen for the purpose of turning it over to the police who accessed it by search warrant. The person who took it was not acting as a government agent, and it’s clear since Burdeau (1921) that this … Continue reading