- NJ: Cell phone password not 5A privileged on this record
- D.Minn.: RS supported a protective sweep even though it turned out that all people there were accounted for
- FL2: State failed to show search of house was within limited scope of def’s consent
- M.D.Fla.: Def was given guest standing to challenge a knock-and-talk that both sides agree was unreasonable
- PA: Firing an assault rifle in your house justifies a protective sweep
online since Feb. 24, 2003
WebPage Visits: real non-robot hits since 2010; approx. 25k posts since 2003
Fourth Amendment cases,
citations, and links
Latest Slip Opinions:
U.S. Supreme Court (Home)
Federal Appellate Courts Opinions
FDsys, many district courts, other federal courts
Military Courts: C.A.A.F., Army, AF, N-M, CG, SF
State courts (and some USDC opinions)
Advanced Google Scholar
Google search tips
LII State Appellate Courts
LexisONE free caselaw
Findlaw Free Opinions
To search Search and Seizure on Lexis.com $
S. Ct. Docket
Solicitor General's site
Briefs online (but no amicus briefs)
Oyez Project (NWU)
"On the Docket"–Medill
S.Ct. Monitor: Law.com
S.Ct. Com't'ry: Law.com
General (many free):
Google Scholar | Google
LexisOne Legal Website Directory
Lexis.com (criminal law/ 4th Amd) $
Findlaw.com (4th Amd)
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Resources
FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download)
DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)
Stringrays (ACLU No. Cal.) (pdf)
Congressional Research Service:
--Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)
ACLU on privacy
Electronic Frontier Foundation
NACDL’s Domestic Drone Information Center
Electronic Privacy Information Center
Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
Section 1983 Blog
"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
Website design by Wally Waller, Little Rock
2017 ABA Journal Web 100
Monthly Archives: April 2018
Because the exclusionary rule is a “last resort,” on plain error review, defendant cannot claim error for the failure of the district court to determine that his version of the facts is more credible than the governments. There is no … Continue reading
Volokh Conspiracy: Suspect Can Be Compelled to Decrypt Devices If Government Proves He Has The Ability To Do So, Court Rules
United States v. Spencer, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 70649 (N.D. Cal. Apr. 26, 2018) Volokh Conspiracy: Suspect Can Be Compelled to Decrypt Devices If Government Proves He Has The Ability To Do So, Court Rules by Orin Kerr: The right … Continue reading
Fortune: Police Body Cameras Could Get Facial Recognition Technology by Lisa Marie Segarra:
AP: Earlier search for Golden State Killer led to wrong man by Michael Balsamo and Jonathan J. Cooper with Frank Stoltze:
No, the defendant doesn’t get to continue litigating his Fourth Amendment claim into infinity by going to 2255 after loosing the appeal. White v. United States, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 70628 (D. Md. Apr. 26, 2018):
IN: Def slumped over steering wheel in hospital parking lot justified look in car based on emergency aid exception
A deputy sheriff was doing off-duty security work at a hospital same day surgery parking lot when he saw the defendant slumped over his steering wheel, the door open, and the engine off. When the officer turned on his take … Continue reading
There is no reasonable expectation of privacy in a license plate, and the Fourth Amendment doesn’t prohibit running the tags for any reason. State v. Abrams, 2018 Ala. Crim. App. LEXIS 24 (Apr. 27, 2018). The government obtained internet routing … Continue reading
Officers executing a search warrant saw defendant acting like he had something hidden in the back of his pants. Defendant’s squirming and clenching his butt strongly suggested to the officer that he had drugs hidden in his rectum. The search … Continue reading
“Reason to believe” in Payton and Steagald means probable cause. It cannot constitutionally be less and be faithful to the protection of the home from unreasonable invasions. This case includes a thorough discussion of both cases and their constitutional requirements. … Continue reading
W.D.Va.: Use of a summons under 19 U.S.C. § 1509 to obtain information to prosecute defendant for CP doesn’t violate 4A
The government used a summons under 19 U.S.C. § 1509 to obtain information to prosecute defendant for child pornography. Use of § 1509 didn’t violate the Fourth Amendment, and there’s no exclusionary rule for violation anyway. Defendant’s claim that the … Continue reading
The affidavit failed to show probable cause for nexus to defendant’s house. It was so devoid of probable cause that the good faith exception does not apply. United States v. Myles, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 69373 (E.D. Mich. Apr. 25, … Continue reading