- IA: Def’s registration papers weren’t in order; while waiting on a response from dispatch, criminal history led to calling drug dog. This didn’t extend the stop
- Cal.4: Detention without RS led to finding warrant; attenuated under Strieff
- CA5: The fact more information could have been gathered didn’t make what had been learned false
- S.D.Ind. & E.D.La.: New crime during arrest not suppressed
- VA: “[T]he acquisition of real-time CSLI data to locate a fleeing murder suspect in an exigent circumstance is permissible under Carpenter.”
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Monthly Archives: May 2021
Inevitable discovery also supports the consent search of defendant’s cell phone obtained at the Sarita, Texas checkpoint. The officers had probable cause and told him they’d get a search warrant and he consented instead. The matter was clearly under active … Continue reading
W.D.N.Y.: 171 page affidavit for SW with 454 paragraphs showed a fair probability evidence would be found
“The undersigned believes, as he originally did when reviewing Smith’s affidavit and signing the search warrant for 45 Southview Terrace, that the information contained in Smith’s affidavit demonstrated a ‘fair probability that contraband or evidence of a crime’ would be … Continue reading
The officer’s reference to “criminal history” in a warrant affidavit doesn’t necessarily mean convictions. Therefore, the court finds no Franks violation. Even striking that reference leaves probable cause. United States v. Woody, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 100605 (W.D. Mo. Apr. … Continue reading
There was reasonable suspicion for defendant’s stop. “But the touchstone of the Fourth Amendment is reasonableness, not perfection. See Heien v. North Carolina, 574 U.S. 54, 60-61, 135 S. Ct. 530, 190 L. Ed. 2d 475 (2014). The facts reported … Continue reading
Defendant had standing to challenge the search of his hotel room, but he did not have any reasonable expectation of privacy in a stolen laptop he possessed. If the entry into the hotel room is unreasonable, the seizure of the … Continue reading
While generally subject to disclosure, search warrant materials here remain sealed for the time being because the investigation has not been disclosed. In re L.A. Times Communications, LLC, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 99766 (C.D. Cal. May 26, 2021). Disputed facts … Continue reading
Monitoring a lawfully placed GPS device on a car is not a separate search. It is lawful under Knotts, well before CSLI. United States v. Howard, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 15856 (11th Cir. May 27, 2021). The affidavit for the … Continue reading
E.D.Mich.: Just because a motorist can be ordered out of the car, that doesn’t permit the officer to open the door for him
Just because a motorist can be ordered out of the car, that doesn’t enable the officer to open the door for him. “As explained above, however, Trooper Miller’s stated purpose included an investigatory motive—verifying whether ‘something’ had been concealed—and his … Continue reading
“Defendant accurately points out that Officer Delk failed to include in his affidavit details about the possibility of retaliatory gang violence and Defendant’s presence at the Merriweather house. … But the Court should not engage in ‘line-by-line scrutiny of the … Continue reading
Reason: Baton Rouge Cops Strip-Searched a Minor During a Traffic Stop and Entered a Family’s Home Without a Warrant.
Reason: Baton Rouge Cops Strip-Searched a Minor During a Traffic Stop and Entered a Family’s Home Without a Warrant. The City Just Settled for $35,000. By Billy Binion (“The case is an indictment on just how hard it is to … Continue reading
At least for standing, “the burden of proof for a motion to suppress is on the party seeking to suppress the evidence. United States v. Dickerson, 655 F.2d 559, 561 (4th Cir. 1981).” United States v. Anderson, 2021 U.S. Dist. … Continue reading
S.D.Ind.: Parole-probation searches are governed by 4A reasonableness but shaped by state law limiting them
The probation or parole search law and reasonableness is a Fourth Amendment question but it’s shaped by state law on how those searches are permitted as a condition of release. This one was reasonable. United States v. Beechler, 2021 U.S. … Continue reading
Officers don’t need reasonable suspicion to approach a person for a potential consensual encounter. State v. Howard, 2021-Ohio-1792, 2021 Ohio App. LEXIS 1734 (10th Dist. May 25, 2021). Defendant’s Facebook Live posting of him holding an AK-47 and smoking marijuana … Continue reading
“[T]he disclosure of the plaintiffs’ medical records to law enforcement officers for the purpose of investigating Dr. Pompy’s allegedly illegal activities did not violate their Fourth Amendment rights or their constitutional right to privacy.” Micks-Harm v. Nichols, 2021 U.S. App. … Continue reading
CO: Impeachment exception to exclusionary rule permits defendant to testify truthfully without opening door to suppressed evidence
The impeachment exception to the exclusionary rule does not bar truthful testimony under the right to present a defense. The trial court has to tailor working around suppressed evidence to enable the defendant to testify truthfully, albeit incompletely because of … Continue reading
Oregon Public Broadcasting: Police in Oregon are searching cellphones daily and straining civil rights by Jonathan Levinson (“‘The police showed up with search warrants and the magistrate looked at it and said, ‘No, this is not tailored enough. Think about … Continue reading
NBC (KARK): Madison County K-9 collapses during drug search; 3 arrested by Heath Higgs (“Three people were arrested on multiple charges in Madison County on Sunday after a traffic stop that resulted in the apparent drug overdose of a police … Continue reading
Officer’s certain knowledge of a syringe in defendant’s pocket defendant lied about after a consensual patdown for weapons justified a search incident. The officer sought a patdown because of his nervousness. State v. Budka, 2021 Ida. App. LEXIS 20 (May … Continue reading
Motherboard: Crime App Citizen is Driving a Security Car Around L.A. and Won’t Say Why by Joseph Cox (“The vehicle is linked to a private security company which describes itself as a ‘subscription law enforcement service.’”)