Category Archives: Burden of proof

NC: State has burden of proof BRD on 4A harmless error

The state carries the burden of proving harmless error for a Fourth Amendment beyond a reasonable doubt. State v. Scott, 2021-NCSC-41, 2021 N.C. LEXIS 321 (Apr. 16, 2021). The evidence supports that the person consenting had apparent and actual authority … Continue reading

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CA4: Def had burden on GFE, and he failed

Assuming without deciding the probable cause question, defendant fails to prove that the good faith exception should not be applied. United States v. Parrish, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 10533 (4th Cir. Apr. 13, 2021). The officer had probable cause to … Continue reading

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W.D.Pa.: Def can show standing from govt’s papers, including affidavit for SW, and its case at suppression hearing

The defendant has the burden of showing standing, if raised, but he doesn’t have to testify to do it. The affidavit for the warrant here said the place to be searched was defendant’s and that’s enough. Other cases in this … Continue reading

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KY: State failed to call witnesses to show RS for extending stop for drug dog

The state failed to prove its reasonable suspicion for extending the stop. The officer alone detaining at the scene for the drug dog didn’t have the evidence. Giles v. Commonwealth, 2021 Ky. App. LEXIS 45 (Mar. 26, 2021):

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WY: Mere citation to state constitution without cogent argument for different treatment is waiver

Citation alone to the state constitution’s search and seizure without cogent argument for differentiating Fourth Amendment cases is waiver. The totality of information before the officer in the traffic stop justified it. Elmore v. State, 2021 Wyo. LEXIS 48 (Mar. … Continue reading

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D.Conn.: When govt raises an exception to warrant requirement, def must rebut in briefing, but cell phone seizure shown unjustified

In response to defendant’s motion to suppress, the government argued search incident, which the defense didn’t rebut in the papers. Motion denied in part. Defendant’s cell phone seizure is suppressed, however, because the government didn’t show justification for its seizure. … Continue reading

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CA5: District court’s failure to credit def’s claim of possessory interest in car is affirmed

Defendant was a passenger in a car in which he claimed he had a possessory interest because it belonged to his domestic partner and he claimed to have paid $2000 toward the car. The district court didn’t credit that testimony … Continue reading

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AR: Reasonableness of a probation search has to be presented to revocation court first

Defendant didn’t argue in the revocation court that the probation search was unreasonable, so it can’t be argued on appeal. Mathis v. State, 2021 Ark. App. 49, 2021 Ark. App. LEXIS 57 (Feb. 3, 2021). Defendant was on release and … Continue reading

Posted in Automobile exception, Burden of pleading, Burden of proof, Probation / Parole search, Standards of review | Comments Off on AR: Reasonableness of a probation search has to be presented to revocation court first

N.D.Ill.: Arrest warrant doesn’t permit a search on entry

Defendant’s arrest warrant permitted entry to arrest him but not to search. A protective sweep was still permitted, if justified. Here no. But the search warrant for the cell phone was not tainted by the initial illegality, and the exclusionary … Continue reading

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D.V.I.: Failure to put on proof at suppression hearing leads to show cause order to defense

Defendant filed a motion to suppress a statement and a search. At the hearing, however, the search wasn’t challenged. Defendant has to show cause why that part of the motion should not be denied. United States v. Henry, 2021 U.S. … Continue reading

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NE: State failed in its burden of proof on inventory; the defense has no duty to clear up confusion in the proof

The state carried the burden, and it failed to prove that the inventory of defendant’s vehicle followed standardized procedure or was reasonable. The defense had no burden to clear up any evidentiary confusion because the state had the burden. State … Continue reading

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D.Colo.: Failure to call the officers with enough information to show collective knowledge as witnesses made govt fail in its burden of proof

The government failed to prove collective knowledge at the hearing on the motion to suppress. A critical witness to collective knowledge wasn’t called. United States v. De La Rosa-Calderon, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3378 (D. Colo. Jan. 7, 2021):

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CA6: Def waived Franks argument on appeal by only arguing PC below

Defendant’s Franks argument on appeal fails because the motion to suppress was based on a lack of probable cause and didn’t direct the court to any alleged false statement under Franks. United States v. Baker, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 113 … Continue reading

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OH2: Post-conviction 4A claim of lack of PC for SW fails for failure to include affidavit in record

Defendant’s post-conviction claim that defense counsel was ineffective for not challenging the validity of the search warrant in his case fails. He has to show he would have prevailed on the search issue, but the affidavit for the warrant isn’t … Continue reading

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W.D.N.C.: Indian tribes not subject to 4A claims

“Plaintiff cannot bring a claim based on a Fourth or Fourteenth Amendment violation against an Indian tribe like the Defendant. Oviatt v. Reynolds, 733 F. App’x 929, 933 (10th Cir. 2018) (dismissing Fourth Amendment claim against an Indian tribe ‘because … Continue reading

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OH9: State argued RS but didn’t come forward with proof of it

The state argued there were factors supporting reasonable suspicion, but they didn’t come forward with it. Order granting motion to suppress affirmed. State v. Thomas, 2020-Ohio-3539, 2020 Ohio App. LEXIS 2453 (9th Dist. June 30, 2020). The search warrant was … Continue reading

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IL: Arguing only lack of arrest warrant waives lack of PC

Pleading and litigating a motion to suppress in the trial court that the officers lacked an arrest warrant or an exception waived his appellate claim of a lack of probable cause. People v. Montes, 2020 IL App (2d) 180565, 2020 … Continue reading

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FL5: Trial court’s order suppressing warrantless black box search affirmed for lack of a record

The trial court granted a motion to suppress the search of defendant’s car’s black box (“event data recorder”). The state on appeal seeks to depart from State v. Worsham, 227 So. 3d 602, 603 (Fla. 4th DCA 2017), that there … Continue reading

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D.Minn.: Desire to file a Franks motion doesn’t expand discovery rights

“Generally, the fact that a defendant wishes to seek a Franks hearing ‘does not entitle him or her to additional discovery before the Franks hearing.’” The government stated it has provided discovery required by Rule 16. Defendant’s request for further … Continue reading

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IL: Flight from gunshots is not RS

Defendant’s flight into his house on hearing gunshots was not reasonable suspicion to give chase or probable cause to enter the house to arrest him. Anybody would flee gunshots. People v. Craine, 2020 IL App (1st) 163403, 2020 Ill. App. … Continue reading

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