- W.D.Mo.: ER’s security staff conducts private searches of GSW victims
- IA: Trespassing on RR property was RS for stop
- CA9: Going directly into pockets exceeded frisk power
- CA6: Excessive force “assault” claim under § 1983 doesn’t necessarily require contact
- N.D.Ga.: PC shown for cell phone and geo-location data
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Uncategorized
Reason: A Supreme Court Decision That Did Lasting Damage to the 4th Amendment by Damon Root (“How pretextual traffic stops got the judicial stamp of approval.”)
Juval O. Scott, The Myth of Objectivity in Fourth Amendment Jurisprudence, 36 Criminal Justice 13 (No. 1 Spring 2021):
CA8: Def’s contradicting suppression hearing testimony at trial opened him to cross-examination on it
Where defendant’s testimony of his connection to the car materially changed between the suppression hearing and trial, the government could cross examine him on the contradictions under Simmons. United States v. Navarette, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 13458 (8th Cir. May … Continue reading
LATimes: The FBI raided her home to find Nancy Pelosi’s laptop. But was she the wrong woman? (Homer, AK, because she looked like the alleged thief)
Reasonable suspicion as to the car can extend to a passenger doing nothing. This is akin to a protective sweep of a house to protect against unknown dangers. State v. Payne, 310 Ore. App. 672, 2021 Ore. App. LEXIS 500 … Continue reading
NYT: Why Police Can Stop Motorists With Air Fresheners Hanging in Their Cars by Mike Baker and Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs (“In a majority of states it is illegal to hang anything from a rearview mirror that obscures a driver’s view. Critics … Continue reading
(The blog is old enough to vote.)
The state doesn’t show a “clear indication” to take DNA samples from three defendants to attempt to connect them to a gun found in the trunk of one defendant’s car that he owned up to. A motion to suppress the … Continue reading
VICE: How New York Quietly Ended Its Street Drug War by Max Daly (“New data analyzed by VICE News reveals a monumental drop in arrests and convictions for low level drug crime in NYC, as the city finally tries to … Continue reading
NBC News: Swiping alt-right: How catfishing for democracy helped users flag Capitol rioters to FBI with Ali Vitali
In a trash search case, the trash cans faced an alley but were on defendant’s grass. The officers could open the trash cans without stepping on the property. This was a valid trash search, and, having credited the officers’ testimony, … Continue reading
D.Me.: No PC shown for SW in 33 year old rape and murder case, but GFE still applies (because two judges approved of it)
Defendant was the target of a 2019 search warrant for trophies (jewelry and clothing) from and ligatures used in sexual assaults and murders committed in 1986-88. Defendant did four stints in prison in between. A search warrant was issued for … Continue reading
Based on prior cases, the court finds this encounter was a consensual encounter. “We find that the Trooper’s request that appellant ‘come here’ did not turn the encounter into a seizure.” State v. Nichols, 2020-Ohio-6960, 2020 Ohio App. LEXIS 4782 … Continue reading
NYTimes: Another Arrest, and Jail Time, Due to a Bad Facial Recognition Match by Kashmir Hill (“Nijeer Parks is the third person known to be arrested for a crime he did not commit based on a bad face recognition match.”)
Denial of a motion to suppress is not immediately appealable in Ohio. Here, there was an appealable pretrial issue of a grant of dismissal for pretrial delay, and the court finds the suppression issue was still viable and could be … Continue reading
The trial court refused to bind over defendant for trial on arson charges. The state investigated (but not completely apparently) and never sought a search warrant for evidence at the scene while they found it suspicious. The fact there might … Continue reading
Law.com: Fired COVID-19 Data Scientist Sues Over Police Raid: ‘I’m Worried … Where We’re Going’ by Rachel Lean (“An armed police raid of a fired COVID-19 data scientist’s home sparked a lawsuit Monday in Leon Circuit Court, which claims the … Continue reading
December 15, 1791 the Bill of Rights was ratified by the states, 229 years ago.
CBS19: CPD hires first Fourth Amendment Investigative Analyst:
LATimes: TSA program kept surveilling some travelers without reason, audit finds by Hugo Martín (“A controversial U.S. program to monitor “high-risk” passengers at airports and on domestic flights has been poorly managed, with some fliers continuing to be monitored after … Continue reading