- CA6: Alleged inappropriate search of 17-year-old girl before letting her go to bathroom during traffic stop that led to a drug dog and finding nothing gets to go to jury
- W.D.Pa.: Request for CI’s identity was speculative venture here and denied
- NYTimes: Just Don’t Call It Privacy
- PA: Emergency aid entry into home doesn’t permit reentry for accurate recordkeeping
- CA2: On GVR after Carpenter, Second Circuit also holds GFE applies to 2011 SCA order
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Independent source
The police had information that armed robbers were communicating on Facebook about their plans. The affidavit of probable cause as to this defendant’s Facebook account was thin, but it was similar to that of the other defendants and it still … Continue reading
TN: Delivery of pseudo not exigency for warrantless entry but here they had independent source for warrant
Delivery of pseudoephedrine did not justify a warrantless entry into defendant’s house as an exigent circumstance. However, the officers had probable cause already, and there was an independent source for the information. Tennessee still follows Aguilar-Spinelli, and it requires “corroboration … Continue reading
Statements from the owner of defendant’s house which made it into the search warrant application and were made after the alleged illegal entry by the police were an independent source. Thus, the motion judge properly denied the motion to suppress … Continue reading
CA2: Even if defendant’s stop violated the Fourth Amendment, his assault on the officer not suppressed
Even if defendant’s stop violated the Fourth Amendment, his assault on the officer would not be suppressed. United States v. Jenkins, 2016 U.S. App. LEXIS 15539 (2d Cir. Aug. 24, 2016). Defendant’s 2255 claim seems to be that the government … Continue reading
There was an illegal entry, but the police had probable cause already, and the search warrant affidavit didn’t include a word of it. Therefore, the first prong of the independent source doctrine was satisfied. As to the second, the investigation … Continue reading
It was reasonable for an officer in a DUI stop to open the defendant’s door for his own safety when the windows were tinted so darkly he couldn’t see inside. He also knocked on the window first. State v. Simpson, … Continue reading
Defendant had no standing in a U.K. bulletin board where he was alleged to have obtained child pornography. U.S. officers got into the system and obtained defendant’s information. Even the fact it was password protected adds nothing to the standing … Continue reading
W.D.N.Y.: Prior illegal entry didn’t void search were the independent source was two later controlled deliveries
Police conducted an illegal warrantless entry two weeks before seeking a search warrant, but then they made two more controlled buys from defendant before getting a search warrant. The warrant had an independent source and would not be suppressed. United … Continue reading
Defendant drove up to a house in the process of a drug raid. Eight people were in custody. Defendant was stopped when he got to the door, and he was frisked and a gun was found. The search was valid … Continue reading
CA11: Nothing from warrantless cell phone search made it into SW for phones; independent source rule applies
The government did a cursory warrantless search of two defendants’ cell phones, concerned about a remote wipe, prior to obtaining a search warrant for those phones and others. The independent source rule was satisfied for the searches because there was … Continue reading
Computer searches should occur away from the target’s premises. Sometimes they take a long time, and it is infeasible to do them at the scene of the search when it can take days. The comment to the Rule supports this. … Continue reading