- CA5: Forthwith SDT of doctor’s office could state 4A claim
- E.D.N.C.: Driveway isn’t always curtilage under Collins
- D.S.C.: Officers weren’t familiar with inventory policy and didn’t follow it; suppressed
- KS: Inquiry to resolve an alleged emergency was reasonable, but extending detention to check warrants was unreasonable even under Strieff
- CA6: Handcuffing too tight overcame QI
online since Feb. 24, 2003
WebPage Visits: real non-robot hits since 2010; approx. 25k posts since 2003
Fourth Amendment cases,
citations, and links
Latest Slip Opinions:
U.S. Supreme Court (Home)
Federal Appellate Courts Opinions
FDsys, many district courts, other federal courts
Military Courts: C.A.A.F., Army, AF, N-M, CG, SF
State courts (and some USDC opinions)
Advanced Google Scholar
Google search tips
LII State Appellate Courts
LexisONE free caselaw
Findlaw Free Opinions
To search Search and Seizure on Lexis.com $
S. Ct. Docket
Solicitor General's site
Briefs online (but no amicus briefs)
Oyez Project (NWU)
"On the Docket"–Medill
S.Ct. Monitor: Law.com
S.Ct. Com't'ry: Law.com
General (many free):
Google Scholar | Google
LexisOne Legal Website Directory
Lexis.com (criminal law/ 4th Amd) $
Findlaw.com (4th Amd)
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Resources
FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download)
DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)
Stringrays (ACLU No. Cal.) (pdf)
Congressional Research Service:
--Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)
ACLU on privacy
Electronic Frontier Foundation
NACDL’s Domestic Drone Information Center
Electronic Privacy Information Center
Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
Section 1983 Blog
"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
Website design by Wally Waller, Little Rock
Monthly Archives: February 2019
There were disputed issues of material fact to the arrestee’s claims, including whether the officers exceeded the scope of a lawful protective search by removing the arrestee’s wallet from his pants. King v. United States, 2019 U.S. App. LEXIS 5438 … Continue reading
TN: Misdescription but with correct address of mobile home in SW cured by officer familiar with house being there for search
“Both Detective Norwood, who prepared the affidavit and executed the search warrant, and Investigator Mason, who participated in the execution of the search warrant, were familiar with the location of the mobile home park, and Investigator Mason knew specifically where … Continue reading
Police following state appellate precedent at the time of defendant’s blood test, later changed, was subject to the good faith exception. State v. Weakland, 2019 Ariz. LEXIS 56 (Feb. 25, 2019). Defendant filed what’s treated as a successor 2255 over … Continue reading
Defendants were charged in a dietary supplement mislabeling conspiracy. On the claim of overseizure, the warrant specified “angeline” but the court concludes anything related to it was seizable as well without violating particularity. Two defendants were given standing to challenge … Continue reading
For the good faith exception to apply, it is only necessary that the affidavit be referred to in the warrant to save the warrant from a failure of particularity; it doesn’t need to be completely incorporated by reference. United States … Continue reading
WaPo: Internal memo suggests Little Rock police serve every search warrant with a SWAT team by Radley Balko: “It is a mandate from the Office of the Chief of Police that the SWAT team execute all search warrants.”
Above the Law: The Constitution Demands A Stronger Check On Government Raids Against Civilians by Tyler Broker: Despite decreasing crime across the country, the success of alternatives, and widespread criticism, the business of government raids is booming.
M.D.Tenn.: Getting new evidence, def succeeds in a Franks challenge after initial denial of his motion to suppress
On a motion to reconsider denial of a suppression motion with new evidence, defendant succeeds on a Franks challenge. [The court initially had concerns about officer credibility, and this cinches it.] United States v. Anderson, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 29539 … Continue reading
Defendant raises his search claim via an ineffective assistance of counsel claim: defense counsel should have suppressed the plain view of his vehicle in his driveway partly covered by a blanket. Officers responded to an anonymous tip that defendant’s SUV … Continue reading
A CI who’d been in defendant’s house reported that defendant had a quantity of marijuana for sale, and it was reported by the officer in the affidavit to have been within the previous 72 hours. Probable cause was shown for … Continue reading
The officer here confronted trespassers which he suspected might be squatters and drug users. “The Court finds that the officer’s questions and actions were reasonably related to learning the identities of the people on the property, learning whether they were … Continue reading
IN: Walk through of house for non-investigatory reason after unconscious person taken to hospital justified by community caretaking function
Officers responded to a 911 call that a child was unconscious. After the child went to the hospital and the parent went in police vehicle, an officer at the scene did a walk through to insure there was no one … Continue reading
The good faith exception cannot be applied to an overbroad protective sweep. [Yet, the court finds the exclusionary rule doesn’t apply for other reasons.] United States v. Garcia, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 27861 (N.D. Cal. Feb. 22, 2019):
Fourth Amendment Standing and the General Rule of Waiver by Katerina Kokkas, 2018 U. Chi. Law Forum art. 14 (2019)
Journal Times editorial (Mulwaukee): The Cellebrite and its threat to your constitutional rights. Racine WI acquires a Cellebrite.