- CA3: FBI notice of being “armed and dangerous” justified stop and furtive movement a frisk
- FL3: Some discretion in the seizing officers as to what should be seized was not unreasonable or a lack of particularity
- OH5: 911 call of man carrying long gun on street wasn’t RS
- CA11: SI of notebook in def’s purse was reasonable without PC as to it
- NJ: Once SW issues for cell phone, foregone conclusion exception to self-incrimination applies and password can be compelled
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Daily Archives: March 29, 2019
There is no reasonable expectation of privacy in a police interrogation room where defendant was left and was recorded talking to his wife about the shooting. State v. Paige, 2019-Ohio-1088, 2019 Ohio App. LEXIS 1162 (7th Dist. Mar. 27, 2019) … Continue reading
CNN: Robert Kraft wants video of day spa session to be kept out of trial by Steve Almasy:
Defendant could have standing in a storage unit she had another person rent to store her records and stuff. A hearing is required. United States v. Bronfman, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 49508 (E.D. N.Y. Mar. 26, 2019):
Prolonged GPS monitoring for punishment for child pornography, a non-contact offense, was unreasonable under Grady v. North Carolina because the state’s interest was only marginal compared to the interest of the offender. Commonwealth v. Feliz, 481 Mass. 689 (Mar. 26, … Continue reading
Defendant was on probation and had GPS monitoring as a condition. It was reasonable for the state to access the historical GPS data later when defendant was suspected of a crime. Commonwealth v. Johnson, 481 Mass. 710 (Mar. 26, 2019). … Continue reading
WaPo: DEA’s bulk collection of phone data ‘raised significant legal questions’ by Joe Davidson:
Defendant’s ineffective assistance of counsel claim about defense counsel’s handling of an alleged defective search warrant claim couldn’t be considered on appeal where nobody put the search warrant in the appellate record. Holland v. State, 2019 Tenn. Crim. App. LEXIS … Continue reading
The search warrant for defendant’s cell phone was still particular enough for photographs that could be tied to text messages in a murder case. Even deleted photographs were subject to recovery. State v. Page, 2019 N.H. LEXIS 53 (Mar. 19, … Continue reading
Lexology: Has Investigative Genealogy Become the Wild, Wild West? by Kathleen E. Dion