“McCrea claims that Defendants violated her Fourth Amendment right to privacy by ordering her to undergo psychological assessments that went beyond the essential functions of her job as a firefighter. … The Fourth Amendment protects an individual’s ‘reasonable expectation of privacy,’ and their right to be free from warrantless searches and seizures. … [¶] McCrea cites no legal authority for the proposition that a municipal employer engages in a ‘search’ or ‘seizure’ when it requests medical documentation in order to determine whether a firefighter is fit to return to duty.” Also, this is limited to one defendant. McCrea v. District of Columbia, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 62009 (D.D.C. Mar. 31, 2021).
When plaintiff was in a restricted area, the defendant officer told him to leave, but he didn’t. The officer grabbed his arm to escort him out, but he started shoving the officer. The use of pepper spray at that point was subject to qualified immunity. Jacobsen v. Klinefelter, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 9213 (8th Cir. Mar. 30, 2021).*