The collective knowledge doctrine applies to traffic stops. United States v. Murray, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 111040 (S.D. Ohio June 24, 2020).
“Applying this [deferential] standard of review to the warrant application, the Court has reviewed the application and finds that probable cause existed for the warrant. For these reasons, the Court recommends that defendant’s request for suppression of evidence on these grounds be denied.” Besides, the good faith exception applies. United States v. Bowman, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 111683 (W.D. N.Y. May 26, 2020).*