When one defendant wanted to leave the encounter with the police, there was no reasonable suspicion for his patdown and he should have been allowed to leave without the patdown. United States v. Steffens, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 190597 (N.D. Iowa Nov. 4, 2019).*
Defendant did a conditional plea, but the search was valid under the automobile exception.
United States v. Whittingslow, 2019 U.S. App. LEXIS 32916 (8th Cir. Nov. 4, 2019).*