Defendant’s stepfather was a Davenport police officer, and, off-duty, he searched defendant’s property twice and turned it over to the police. The detail of his actions show him acting as a concerned parent, not as a law enforcement officer. Therefore, it’s a private search. State v. Brown, 2017 Iowa Sup. LEXIS 9 (Feb. 10, 2017).
The driver’s and passenger’s stories didn’t match, so, when the warning was complete, the officer asked for consent and then called for a drug dog. Reasonable suspicion had developed by then. United States v. Melchior, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 17175 (D.Neb. Jan. 17, 2017).*