Under Whren, the stop of a vehicle can be completely pretextual as long as a factual basis is shown. The officer said defendant was speeding, and there’s nothing in the record that suggests otherwise. United States v. Ponder, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 88802 (M.D. Pa. June 9, 2017).
Defendant consented to a search of his bag boarding a bus in Laredo based on statements to an officer that didn’t make complete sense. Inside the bag, the other officer found boots and they had the appearance of having drugs hidden in the soles which the officers had seen before. United States v. Gonzalez-Badillo, 2017 U.S. App. LEXIS 10648 (5th Cir. June 15, 2017).*