To what degree is RS near the border delegated to the Border Patrol?

On the totality of circumstances, there was reasonable suspicion. “Keeping in mind that border patrol agents, not courts, are trained to detect smugglers, and ‘[t]he facts are to be interpreted in light of a trained officer’s experience,’ United States v. Michael R., 90 F.3d 340, 346 (9th Cir. 1996), the facts presented here support the conclusion that Agent Ramirez acted with reasonable suspicion when he stopped the vehicle.” United States v. Rivas, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 56043 (D.Ariz. March 14, 2017), adopted, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 56040 (D. Ariz. Apr. 11, 2017). This harkens back to the famous Amsterdam quote: “What it means in practice is appellate courts defer to trial courts and trial courts defer to the police.” Anthony G. Amsterdam, Perspectives on the Fourth Amendment, 58 Minn. L. Rev. 349, 394 (1974).

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