The independent source doctrine was sufficient to show that the search was valid, no matter what. The affidavit for the search warrant was drafted the day before the alleged illegal entry for arrest and protective sweep, which the court can assume for the sake of argument. “Thus, we need not excise anything from the search warrant affidavit in assessing whether the information in it established probable cause. The district court concluded that the affidavit contained sufficient information. We agree.” United States v. Hamda, 2016 U.S. App. LEXIS 6681 (11th Cir. April 13, 2016).
The traffic stop was over in five minutes and the paperwork was returned. After that, defendant voluntarily consented. United States v. Lecraft, 2016 U.S. App. LEXIS 6792 (4th Cir. April 14, 2016).*