Asking motorist whether he is armed relates to officer safety, and it is reasonable during a stop. United States v. Racer, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 18664 (4th Cir. July 7, 2022).
Dog sniff outside an apartment door didn’t violate any reasonable expectation of privacy. That’s the weight of authority. United States v. Nelson, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 119760 (D. Md. July 6, 2022).
The traffic statute here is unambiguous, and the officer’s interpretation is not a reasonable mistake under Heien, also looking to Justice Kagan’s concurrence in Heien. United States v. Potter, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 120380 (D.N.H. July 8, 2022)