The collective knowledge doctrine supports the extension of defendant’s stop beyond the normal part of a traffic stop incident to its purpose under Rodriguez. The DEA had additional information that added up to reasonable suspicion, almost probable cause. United States v. Alonzo, 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 51043 (D.Minn. April 15, 2016).
Defense counsel wasn’t ineffective for not filing a motion to suppress that clearly would have failed. “These facts established not only reasonable suspicion to stop the vehicle in which the three men were driving and question them, but also probable cause to stop the vehicle and arrest them since a prudent person would view these facts as showing that the men had committed or were about to commit a drug-trafficking offense. … Additionally, there was also probable cause to stop the car and arrest Fernando, who was driving, based on his outstanding probation violation warrants.” Moreno-Azua v. United States, 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 50969 (W.D.N.C. April 15, 2016).*