Archives for: January 2013, 16


Permalink 10:48:48 am, by fourth, 306 words, 553 views   English (US)
Categories: General

Thoughts on firearm surrender under NYS’s Secure Ammunition and Firearms Enforcement Act under the Fourth Amendment

Looking at news stories last night, I had some questions about the mechanics of firearm surrender under NYS’s Secure Ammunition and Firearms Enforcement Act signed into law yesterday. I found that New York law already is replete with provisions for surrender of firearms or licenses on the occurrence of particular events. The Act uses "surrender" 42 times. The first, for example:

§ 2-a. Firearm, rifle or shotgun surrender order. Upon entry of a verdict of not responsible by reason of mental disease or defect, or upon the acceptance of a plea of not responsible by reason of mental disease or defect, or upon a finding that the defendant is an incapacitated person pursuant to article seven hundred thirty of this chapter, the court shall revoke the defendant's firearm license, if any, inquire of the defendant as to the existence and location of any firearm, rifle or shotgun owned or possessed by such defendant and direct the surrender of such firearm, rifle or shotgun pursuant to subparagraph (f) of paragraph one of subdivision a of section 265.20 and subdivision six of section 400.05 of the penal law.

There are several others, such as for conviction of a crime, or believed to be mentally impaired, with a psychotherapist reporting privilege, all protected by judicial review.

What if the owner of a firearm refuses to give it up when ordered to by a court? A search warrant issues. People v. Degiorgio, 36 A.D.3d 1007, 827 N.Y.S.2d 342, 343 (3d Dept. 2007). Because it is a compelled act of production, however, it can't be used against the gun owner under the Fifth Amendment. People v. Havrish, 8 N.Y.3d 389, 834 N.Y.S.2d 681, 866 N.E.2d 1009 (2007). As for a search warrant, it could be viewed as an administrative warrant, but it is still issued by a judicial officer and subject to review for sufficiency.

Permalink 09:37:29 am, by fourth, 255 words, 599 views   English (US)
Categories: General

N.D.Va.: GSR test doesn’t need a separate warrant if it is done incident to arrest

GSR test doesn’t need a separate warrant if it is done incident to arrest. United States v. Williams, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5943 (N.D. Va. January 15, 2013) (adopting R&R):

Although the defendant feels that [United States v. Simmons, 380 Fed. Appx. 323 (4th Cir. 2010),] only provided qualified approval regarding conducting a GSR search without a warrant incident to arrest, this Court believes that the only qualification the Fourth Circuit indicated was the requirement that it be conducted pursuant to a lawful arrest. As indicated, this Court finds that such arrest was in fact lawful, as the officers had probable cause to make the arrest and, therefore, the magistrate judge's report and recommendation concerning the motion to suppress evidence is affirmed and adopted.

... The Fourth Circuit stated in Simmons, "the GSR test, a 'very limited search,' was appropriate as a search incident to arrest" after it found that Simmons did not contest the lawfulness of the arrest. 380 F. App'x at 330; see United States v. Allen, 358 F. App'x 697, 699 (7th Cir. 2009) (finding no Fourth Amendment violation concerning a GSR test conducted without a warrant as "the delicate nature of the gunshot residue required law enforcement to administer the test quickly before the evidence could be wiped off or destroyed"); see United States v. Johnson, 445 F.3d 793, 795-96 (5th Cir. 2006) (finding no Fourth Amendment violation concerning a GSR test so long as the arrest was valid, as the "presence of gun powder on his hands was relevant" and the defendant "could have eventually removed or destroyed" the evidence).

Permalink 09:07:42 am, by fourth, 192 words, 435 views   English (US)
Categories: General

D.Kan.: Defendant's forcible arrest and removal to DEA office was not conducive to his consent being voluntary

Officers forcibly arrested defendant and took him to the DEA office to obtain his consent, which is found invalid, as was his statement. “And as noted above, the evidence suggests the agents' unlawful actions, including the forcible manner of arrest and transporting defendant to the DEA, had an investigatory purpose and were designed to surprise or confuse defendant and thereby obtain information from him, rather than to secure his voluntary cooperation.” Ultimately, however, a search warrant was obtained free of the taint of the consent and statement, and that warrant is not suppressed, but the rest is. United States v. Lindgren, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 4912 (D. Kan. January 11, 2013).

GPS on defendant’s car before Jones was valid under Davis. Alternatively, the government had a ping tracking warrant for his cell phone which is not contested. United States v. Orbegoso, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5881 (D. Ariz. January 15, 2013).*

The search warrant for defendants’ motel room was based on probable cause. Part of that was from a plain view of the contents of their car parked outside, which is not challenged. United States v. Medina, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 184369 (D. Minn. October 31, 2012) (R&R).*

Permalink 08:27:25 am, by fourth, 341 words, 827 views   English (US)
Categories: General

CA6: 911 call about overdose justified entry and search for drugs causing overdose

When a family member calls 911 about an overdose and emergency responders know that the person they called about is a heroin user, the responders have exigent circumstances to enter. Here, the occupants rebuffed the police saying an RN in the house checked him out, but they could see he was still in need of treatment. Under prior case law, that did not dissipate the exigency. The responders could also check for the source of the overdose and do a protective sweep. Stricker v. Twp. of Cambridge, 710 F.3d 350 (6th Cir. 2013):

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by John Wesley Hall
Criminal Defense Lawyer and
  Fourth Amendment consultant
Little Rock, Arkansas
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Most recent SCOTUS cases:
2009 to date:

2013-14 Term:
  Riley v. California, granted Jan.17, argued Apr. 29 (ScotusBlog)
  United States v. Wurie, granted Jan.17, argued Apr. 29 (ScotusBlog)
  Plumhoff v. Rickard, granted Nov. 15, argued Mar. 4 (ScotusBlog)
  Stanton v. Sims, 134 S.Ct. 3, 187 L. Ed. 2d 341 (Nov. 4, 2013) (per curiam)
  Navarette v. California, granted Oct.1, argued Jan. 21 (ScotusBlog)
  Fernandez v. California, 134 S.Ct. 1126, 188 L. Ed. 2d 25 (Feb. 25) (ScotusBlog)

2012-13 Term:
  Maryland v. King, 133 S.Ct. 1958, 186 L.Ed.2d 1 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Missouri v. McNeeley, 133 S.Ct. 1552, 185 L.Ed.2d 696 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Bailey v. United States, 133 S.Ct. 1031, 185 L.Ed.2d 19 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Florida v. Harris, 133 S.Ct. 1050, 185 L.Ed.2d 61 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Florida v. Jardines, 133 S.Ct. 1409, 185 L.Ed.2d 495 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Clapper v. Amnesty International USA, 133 S.Ct. 1138, 185 L.Ed.2d 264 (2013) (ScotusBlog)

2011-12 Term:
  Ryburn v. Huff, 132 S.Ct. 987, 181 L.Ed.2d 966 (2012) (other blog)
  Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders, 132 S.Ct. 1510, 182 L.Ed.2d 566 (2012) (ScotusBlog)
  United States v. Jones, 132 S.Ct. 945, 181 L.Ed.2d 911 (2012) (ScotusBlog)
  Messerschmidt v. Millender, 132 S.Ct. 1235, 182 L.Ed.2d 47 (2012) (ScotusBlog)

2010-11 Term:
  Kentucky v. King, 131 S.Ct. 1849, 179 L.Ed.2d 865 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Camreta v. Greene, 131 S.Ct. 2020, 179 L.Ed.2d 1118 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Ashcroft v. al-Kidd, 131 S.Ct. 2074, 179 L.Ed.2d 1149 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Davis v. United States, 131 S.Ct. 2419, 180 L.Ed.2d 285 (2011) (ScotusBlog)

2009-10 Term:

  Michigan v. Fisher, 558 U.S. 45, 130 S.Ct. 546, 175 L.Ed.2d 410 (2009) (per curiam) (ScotusBlog)
  City of Ontario v. Quon, 560 U.S. 746, 130 S.Ct. 2619, 177 L.Ed.2d 216 (2010) (ScotusBlog)

2008-09 Term:
  Herring v. United States, 555 U.S. 135, 129 S.Ct. 695, 172 L.Ed.2d 496 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Pearson v. Callahan, 555 U.S. 223, 129 S.Ct. 808, 172 L.Ed.2d 565 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Arizona v. Johnson, 555 U.S. 323, 129 S.Ct. 781, 172 L.Ed.2d 694 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Arizona v. Gant, 556 U.S. 332, 129 S.Ct. 1710, 173 L.Ed.2d 485 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Safford Unified School District #1 v. Redding, 557 U.S. 364, 129 S.Ct. 2633, 174 L.Ed.2d 354 (2009) (ScotusBlog)

Research Links:
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  FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
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  Congressional Research Service:
    Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
    Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
    Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
    Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
    Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)

  ACLU on privacy
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  Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
  Section 1983 Blog

"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."

"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud

"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).

"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).

Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment.
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).

"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).

"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)

"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)

"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).

"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)

"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)

“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)

“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)

"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards

"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]

“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”
Pepé Le Pew

"There is never enough time, unless you are serving it."
Malcolm Forbes

"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)


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