Archives for: January 2013, 08

01/08/13

Permalink 10:59:44 am, by fourth, 150 words, 370 views   English (US)
Categories: General

OH5: Defendant's parole release paper hadn't issued, so this was a valid parole search

Defendant was at the end of parole and his final release papers had been sought on September 27, 2011. On October 7th, he was subjected to a parole search. The final papers issued October 14th. He was still on parole at the time of the search. State v. Bevington, 2012 Ohio 6285, 2012 Ohio App. LEXIS 5459 (5th Dist. December 31, 2012).*

In a 2254 appeal, defense counsel did not act ineffectively in not contesting the ability of defendant’s mother to consent to a search of a place he infrequently went to and then sought to disassociate defendant from. Peterson v. Smith, 510 Fed. Appx. 356 (6th Cir. 2013).*

Arrest of a gay man in a public park by a police gay man patrol looking to arrest men for public indecency led to dismissal of the case. Nevertheless, the arrest was with probable cause. Even if it wasn’t, the officer had qualified immunity. Alman v. Reed, 703 F.3d 887 (6th Cir. 2013).*

Permalink 08:32:47 am, by fourth, 240 words, 306 views   English (US)
Categories: General

N.D.Tex.: Partial failure to follow inventory policy doesn't render it void

There was an inventory policy, and it was followed. The police here even offered to defendant for somebody to come to get the car, and he declined. Partial noncompliance with the inventory process does not make it void, as long as it was otherwise a true inventory. United States v. Shaw, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 1754 (N.D. Tex. January 7, 2013):

In Rowland the officers failed to comply with procedures requiring a listing of all items in the vehicle. Rowland, 341 F.3d at 779-80. The court held that this noncompliance was not dispositive, and it examined whether other evidence demonstrated that the inventory search was pretextual. Id. at 780. One officer testified that he had only recorded items he considered possible evidence. The court found that this indicated that the search was pretextual because, if the search had actually been for the legitimate purpose of protecting the vehicle owner's property, the officer should have recorded all the property. Id. at 781. An officer also testified that the search was partly conducted to investigate whether the vehicle contained drugs, and the officer called for a drug-sniffing dog to examine the vehicle. Id. at 780. The court pointed out that the officers had failed to follow the standardized procedures and that this failure was coupled with evidence indicating that the officers "sifted through the vehicle's contents searching only for and recording only incriminating evidence; something law enforcement may not do." Id. at 782.

So, how much is enough?

Permalink 08:27:08 am, by fourth, 209 words, 362 views   English (US)
Categories: General

TN: No exigency per se from odor of a meth lab

After clearing the house where there was a suspected meth lab from the strong smell of anhydrous ammonia and starter fluid, the police lacked exigency for a warrantless entry again. There was no evidence of what dangers there were from the pill soak or the odor. State v. Hawks, 2013 Tenn. Crim. App. LEXIS 2 (January 2, 2013):

The facts in this case are significantly different from the facts in Meeks. Granted, the odor of anhydrous ammonia and starter fluid was strong and could be smelled from a significant distance. However, by the time Captain Uselton arrived at the scene, police officers had removed the appellant's family from the home, had determined that the appellant was not present, and were waiting "a distance" away. Captain Uselton arrived and searched the home again but did not find anyone inside. It was the State's burden to show the existence of exigent circumstances. However, unlike Meeks, the State did not present any evidence about the dangers the strong odor or the soaking Sudafed posed to Captain Uselton, other officers at the scene, the appellant's neighbors, or anyone in the surrounding vicinity. Therefore, we conclude that the proof fails to show the existence of exigent circumstances that exempted law enforcement from searching the residence without a warrant.

Permalink 12:03:19 am, by fourth, 106 words, 516 views   English (US)
Categories: General

D.Minn.: Foreclosure sale doesn't violate Fourth Amendment if otherwise reasonable

A reasonably conducted foreclosure sale doesn’t violate the Fourth Amendment, even it if applies (relying on a case making such an assumption). Citimortgage, Inc. v. Kraetzner, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 1416 (D. Minn. January 4, 2013).*

Handcuffing and frisking did not extend the stop, and they were reasonable under the circumstances. United States v. Newman, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 183516 (W.D. Mo. November 15, 2012) (R&R).*

Following what it says is the better rule, there is no requirement for probable cause to each person on a wiretap as long as there is PC as to one. United States v. Tn, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 183606 (W.D. Tex. September 25, 2012).*

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by John Wesley Hall
Criminal Defense Lawyer and
  Fourth Amendment consultant
Little Rock, Arkansas
Contact / The Book
Search and seizure law consulting
www.johnwesleyhall.com

© 2003-14, online since Feb. 24, 2003

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Most recent SCOTUS cases:
2009 to date:

2013-14 Term:
  Riley v. California, granted Jan.17, argued Apr. 29 (ScotusBlog)
  United States v. Wurie, granted Jan.17, argued Apr. 29 (ScotusBlog)
  Plumhoff v. Rickard, granted Nov. 15, argued Mar. 4 (ScotusBlog)
  Stanton v. Sims, 134 S.Ct. 3, 187 L. Ed. 2d 341 (Nov. 4, 2013) (per curiam)
  Navarette v. California, granted Oct.1, argued Jan. 21 (ScotusBlog)
  Fernandez v. California, 134 S.Ct. 1126, 188 L. Ed. 2d 25 (Feb. 25) (ScotusBlog)

2012-13 Term:
  Maryland v. King, 133 S.Ct. 1958, 186 L.Ed.2d 1 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Missouri v. McNeeley, 133 S.Ct. 1552, 185 L.Ed.2d 696 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Bailey v. United States, 133 S.Ct. 1031, 185 L.Ed.2d 19 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Florida v. Harris, 133 S.Ct. 1050, 185 L.Ed.2d 61 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Florida v. Jardines, 133 S.Ct. 1409, 185 L.Ed.2d 495 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Clapper v. Amnesty International USA, 133 S.Ct. 1138, 185 L.Ed.2d 264 (2013) (ScotusBlog)

2011-12 Term:
  Ryburn v. Huff, 132 S.Ct. 987, 181 L.Ed.2d 966 (2012) (other blog)
  Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders, 132 S.Ct. 1510, 182 L.Ed.2d 566 (2012) (ScotusBlog)
  United States v. Jones, 132 S.Ct. 945, 181 L.Ed.2d 911 (2012) (ScotusBlog)
  Messerschmidt v. Millender, 132 S.Ct. 1235, 182 L.Ed.2d 47 (2012) (ScotusBlog)

2010-11 Term:
  Kentucky v. King, 131 S.Ct. 1849, 179 L.Ed.2d 865 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Camreta v. Greene, 131 S.Ct. 2020, 179 L.Ed.2d 1118 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Ashcroft v. al-Kidd, 131 S.Ct. 2074, 179 L.Ed.2d 1149 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Davis v. United States, 131 S.Ct. 2419, 180 L.Ed.2d 285 (2011) (ScotusBlog)

2009-10 Term:

  Michigan v. Fisher, 558 U.S. 45, 130 S.Ct. 546, 175 L.Ed.2d 410 (2009) (per curiam) (ScotusBlog)
  City of Ontario v. Quon, 560 U.S. 746, 130 S.Ct. 2619, 177 L.Ed.2d 216 (2010) (ScotusBlog)

2008-09 Term:
  Herring v. United States, 555 U.S. 135, 129 S.Ct. 695, 172 L.Ed.2d 496 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Pearson v. Callahan, 555 U.S. 223, 129 S.Ct. 808, 172 L.Ed.2d 565 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Arizona v. Johnson, 555 U.S. 323, 129 S.Ct. 781, 172 L.Ed.2d 694 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Arizona v. Gant, 556 U.S. 332, 129 S.Ct. 1710, 173 L.Ed.2d 485 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Safford Unified School District #1 v. Redding, 557 U.S. 364, 129 S.Ct. 2633, 174 L.Ed.2d 354 (2009) (ScotusBlog)


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  FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
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  DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)

  Congressional Research Service:
    Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
    Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
    Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
    Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
    Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)

  ACLU on privacy
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
—Me

"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud

"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).

"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).

Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment.
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).

"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).

"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)

"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)

"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).

"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)

"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)

“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)

“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)

"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards

"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]

“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”
Pepé Le Pew

"There is never enough time, unless you are serving it."
Malcolm Forbes

"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)


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