Archives for: December 2012, 25


Permalink 04:49:37 pm, by fourth, 408 words, 567 views   English (US)
Categories: General

D.D.C.: CSLI information doesn't require showing PC; Smith applies

CSLI information is not protected by the probable cause requirement of the Fourth Amendment. The government sought the information by court order and the USMJ denied it, and the government appealed to the District Judge who granted it. CLSI information is subject to the Smith v. Maryland no reasonable expectation of privacy standard. In the Matter of the Application of the United States of America for an Order Authorizing Disclosure of Historical Cell Site Information for Telephone Number [Text Redacted by the Court], 2011 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 156744 (D. D.C. October 3, 2011):

This Court agrees with the government that the text of the SCA permits the government to apply for compelled disclosure of CSLI records relating to a customer's past use of a cellular telephone company's phone services without meeting the probable cause requirement for a warrant. See, e.g., Oklahoma Press Publishing Co. v. Walling, 327 U.S. 186, 208, 66 S. Ct. 494, 90 L. Ed. 614 (1946) (holding that the probable cause requirement does not apply to compulsory process).

The Court of Appeals' opinion in United States v. Maynard does not compel a contrary result. The Court in Maynard determined that law enforcement installation of a GPS tracking device on a suspect's car that continuously registers the car's location constitutes a "search" under the Fourth Amendment. United States v. Maynard, 615 F.3d 544, 555-56, 392 U.S. App. D.C. 291 (D.C. Cir. 2010). In so holding, the Court did not address compelled disclosure under Section 2703(d) -indeed, the law enforcement officers in Maynard sought no official process sanctioning their conduct before installing the GPS device at issue. See id. at 555. Maynard thus does not bear on the relevant evidentiary standard under Section 2703(d).

In finding that Maynard applied to this case, Magistrate Judge Facciola presumably concluded that obtaining CSLI is tantamount to the sort of continuous GPS surveillance at issue in Maynard. If the analogy holds, collection of historical CSLI may constitute a "search" that requires a warrant under the Fourth Amendment, the SCA notwithstanding. Cf. In re Application of the United States, 620 F.3d at 308-09 (describing magistrate judge's opinion comparing collection of historical CSLI to installation of a tracking device); In re United States Order, 736 F. Supp. 2d 578, 595 & n.6 (E.D.N.Y. 2010) (arguing that "[s]tatutory authority ... is not sufficient if such authority purports to allow, without a showing of probable cause, a search or seizure that must be considered unreasonable under the Fourth Amendment").

Unsealed and posted to Lexis this week.

Permalink 12:16:41 am, by fourth, 213 words, 1216 views   English (US)
Categories: General

E.D.Mo.: Unprovoked flight in a high-crime area is RS

Defendant refused to stop when the patrol car’s lights and siren came on, and that was not a seizure until he was actually stopped. His flight was reasonable suspicion, and the movement of his hands in flight added to it. United States v. Rhone, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 181135 (E.D. Mo. September 19, 2012):

The Supreme Court has held that presence in an area with a high rate of crime with unprovoked flight can satisfy the reasonable suspicion standard for a Terry stop. Illinois v. Wardlow, 528 U.S. 119, 124 (2000). Here, prior to the seizure and search of defendant, the officers found him in the Jeff Vanderlou area, an area with a high rate of crime, and defendant fled from the officers with no provocation. Additionally, while in pursuit of defendant, Officer Anderson observed defendant's hands moving around his jacket pocket. See United States v. Cornelius, 391 F.3d 965, 968 (8th Cir. 2004) (placing hands in jacket pocket and failure to remove hands upon direction by an officer sufficiently justifies a frisk); United States v. Davis, 202 F.3d 1060, 1063 (8th Cir. 2000) (placing hands in jacket pocket and moving to officer's backside upon witnessing the frisk of a companion sufficiently justifies a frisk); see also United States v. Roggeman, 279 F.3d 573, 579 (2002) (bulge in the clothing alone can establish a reasonable suspicion).

Permalink 12:08:02 am, by fourth, 130 words, 425 views   English (US)
Categories: General

TN: Fleeing burglar with a screwdriver showing from pockets could be frisked for weapon

Defendant was seen leaving the scene of a burglary wearing all black and carrying a large black bag. When a man matching all that was seen by the officer, he had reasonable suspicion for a frisk when he saw a screwdriver sticking out of a pocket. Defendant then acquiesced in a consent search of the bag which produced evidence of the burglary. State v. Watkins, 2012 Tenn. Crim. App. LEXIS 1053 (December 19, 2012).*

Defendant in a blocked-in car with three officers with flashlights shining in windows was subjected to a stop governed by Terry. “[T]he police officers had only three justifications: the recent high-crime history of this lot, pat-downs of Julian's patrons, and Young's reclined position in the passenger seat of a parked car.” United States v. Young, 707 F.3d 598 (6th Cir. 2012).*

Permalink 12:01:08 am, by fourth, 147 words, 395 views   English (US)
Categories: General

W.D.N.Y.: To remedy three years of pretrial detention, the defendant is ordered released including a condition of home searches

Defendant was in pretrial detention for three years, and both sides were responsible for delay, the government superceding the indictment multiple times, and the defendant for requesting extensions for filing pretrial motions, and only recently got the search warrant materials from the government. The defendant is ordered released on conditions, including cash deposit, third party custodians, drug testing, and searches of his home by USPO. [The opinion doesn’t tell us whether the defendant offered this condition. A home search as a condition of release is extremely hard to justify, and the court makes no effort to do so.] United States v. Rodriguez, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 181111 (W.D. N.Y. December 21, 2012).

The discrepancies noted by the defense between the search warrant affidavit and the discovery were not material enough to justify an evidentiary hearing. United States v. Dixon, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 180431 (N.D. Ohio December 17, 2012).*

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by John Wesley Hall
Criminal Defense Lawyer and
  Fourth Amendment consultant
Little Rock, Arkansas
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2009 to date:

2013-14 Term:
  Riley v. California, granted Jan.17, argued Apr. 29 (ScotusBlog)
  United States v. Wurie, granted Jan.17, argued Apr. 29 (ScotusBlog)
  Plumhoff v. Rickard, granted Nov. 15, argued Mar. 4 (ScotusBlog)
  Stanton v. Sims, 134 S.Ct. 3, 187 L. Ed. 2d 341 (Nov. 4, 2013) (per curiam)
  Navarette v. California, granted Oct.1, argued Jan. 21 (ScotusBlog)
  Fernandez v. California, 134 S.Ct. 1126, 188 L. Ed. 2d 25 (Feb. 25) (ScotusBlog)

2012-13 Term:
  Maryland v. King, 133 S.Ct. 1958, 186 L.Ed.2d 1 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Missouri v. McNeeley, 133 S.Ct. 1552, 185 L.Ed.2d 696 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Bailey v. United States, 133 S.Ct. 1031, 185 L.Ed.2d 19 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Florida v. Harris, 133 S.Ct. 1050, 185 L.Ed.2d 61 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Florida v. Jardines, 133 S.Ct. 1409, 185 L.Ed.2d 495 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Clapper v. Amnesty International USA, 133 S.Ct. 1138, 185 L.Ed.2d 264 (2013) (ScotusBlog)

2011-12 Term:
  Ryburn v. Huff, 132 S.Ct. 987, 181 L.Ed.2d 966 (2012) (other blog)
  Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders, 132 S.Ct. 1510, 182 L.Ed.2d 566 (2012) (ScotusBlog)
  United States v. Jones, 132 S.Ct. 945, 181 L.Ed.2d 911 (2012) (ScotusBlog)
  Messerschmidt v. Millender, 132 S.Ct. 1235, 182 L.Ed.2d 47 (2012) (ScotusBlog)

2010-11 Term:
  Kentucky v. King, 131 S.Ct. 1849, 179 L.Ed.2d 865 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Camreta v. Greene, 131 S.Ct. 2020, 179 L.Ed.2d 1118 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Ashcroft v. al-Kidd, 131 S.Ct. 2074, 179 L.Ed.2d 1149 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Davis v. United States, 131 S.Ct. 2419, 180 L.Ed.2d 285 (2011) (ScotusBlog)

2009-10 Term:

  Michigan v. Fisher, 558 U.S. 45, 130 S.Ct. 546, 175 L.Ed.2d 410 (2009) (per curiam) (ScotusBlog)
  City of Ontario v. Quon, 560 U.S. 746, 130 S.Ct. 2619, 177 L.Ed.2d 216 (2010) (ScotusBlog)

2008-09 Term:
  Herring v. United States, 555 U.S. 135, 129 S.Ct. 695, 172 L.Ed.2d 496 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Pearson v. Callahan, 555 U.S. 223, 129 S.Ct. 808, 172 L.Ed.2d 565 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Arizona v. Johnson, 555 U.S. 323, 129 S.Ct. 781, 172 L.Ed.2d 694 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Arizona v. Gant, 556 U.S. 332, 129 S.Ct. 1710, 173 L.Ed.2d 485 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Safford Unified School District #1 v. Redding, 557 U.S. 364, 129 S.Ct. 2633, 174 L.Ed.2d 354 (2009) (ScotusBlog)

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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."

"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud

"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).

"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).

Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment.
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).

"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).

"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)

"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)

"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).

"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)

"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)

“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)

“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)

"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards

"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]

“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”
Pepé Le Pew

"There is never enough time, unless you are serving it."
Malcolm Forbes

"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)


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