Archives for: December 2012, 13


Permalink 04:35:35 am, by fourth, 145 words, 373 views   English (US)
Categories: General

Cal.3d: Hearsay from dispatch that defendant had DWI priors didn't make arrest for felony DWI violate the Fourth Amendment

Defendant’s arrest was based on his driving and BAC. It was raised to a felony by the officer after dispatch reported priors. This isn’t improper as reliance on hearsay under the Fourth Amendment. People v. Conley, 211 Cal. App. 4th 953, 150 Cal. Rptr. 3d 334 (3d Dist. November 8, 2012), Rehearing granted, Depublished by, Vacated by People v. Conley, 2013 Cal. App. LEXIS 96 (Cal. App. 3d Dist., Jan. 2, 2013).

Illegal tint led to strong smell of air freshener, nervousness and implausible story and a drug dog also led to a federal fugitive being found. The stop was not too long. Mordica v. State, 319 Ga. App. 149, 736 S.E.2d 153 (2012).*

Suppression of the stop here might have been on a misinterpretation of the statute requiring a turn signal, so the case is remanded to the trial court to specify what’s going on. People v. Tramble, 2012 IL App (3d) 110867, 980 N.E.2d 1254 (2012).*

Permalink 04:19:59 am, by fourth, 325 words, 391 views   English (US)
Categories: General

D.Neb.: Unspecific report of robberies in the area didn't support this stop; furtive movement alone didn't justify arrest

Defendant’s detention, frisk, and search was without reasonable suspicion. It quickly evolved into a de facto arrest. There were general reports of robberies in the area, but nothing related to this stop. The officers’ heavy handedness was also a factor in finding a Fourth Amendment violation. United States v. Morgan, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 175192 (D. Neb. December 11, 2012)*:

The factors that courts consider in determining whether an investigative detention has become an arrest weigh in favor of finding an arrest. This is not the case of a lone law enforcement officer-two officers were involved from the outset and more officers arrived on the scene shortly thereafter. At least two squad cars were present. The nature of the crime under investigation was ostensible robbery, but there was no testimony with respect to number or locations of the robberies, whether the alleged robbers were armed, and no description of either suspects or vehicles involved. The officers' articulable suspicions were weak. The only suspicious behavior was reaching under the automobile seat. Pat-downs of the defendant and his companions yielded no weapons or contraband. There is no evidence that the defendant was violent, uncooperative or aggressive. Other than the defendant's gesture of reaching under the seat, there was no reason to suspect the defendant was armed and dangerous. There was no need for immediate action by the officer.

Also, there was an opportunity for the officer to have conducted himself in a less threatening manner. Officer Normandin did not testify as to any facts indicating a need to handcuff the defendant and the two young women once they were removed from the vehicle.

The government's reliance on "officer safety" concerns to justify their actions in this case are perplexing. The court finds the officers have not shown a reasonable belief based on specific articulable facts that the defendant posed a threat of harm or danger once the defendants and passengers had been removed from the vehicle and patted down. ...

Permalink 04:18:22 am, by fourth, 192 words, 565 views   English (US)
Categories: General

D.Kan.: Frequenting a grow supply store plus MJ in a trash pull justifies a SW for a grow operation

Officers had probable cause to believe defendant had a grow operation based on his buying stuff at a store specializing in that and a trash pull finding marijuana leaves. An email in the trash pull that referred to the drug operation justified a search of his computer. Child pornography was stumbled upon in that search. Alternatively, the search warrant was valid under the good faith exception. United States v. Ellis, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 174367 (D. Kan. December 10, 2012).*

A 2255 can’t relitigate a denied motion to suppress. United States v. Brown, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 174515 (N.D. Ohio December 7, 2012).*

Defendant’s arrest was justified by probable cause, so the search of her person was valid incident to the arrest. United States v. Ortiz, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 174514 (D. Minn. November 20, 2012).*

This knock-and-talk was valid. Three LEOs were clearly identified and no guns were drawn. United States v. Poom-Medina, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 175222 (D. Ariz. December 11, 2012).*

Defendant was stopped for an expired tag, which was a valid stop. After he was out of the car, he fled, and that was another crime. United States v. Holifield, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 174597 (E.D. Tenn. September 27, 2012).*

Permalink 03:49:39 am, by fourth, 170 words, 345 views   English (US)
Categories: General

D.S.D.: While the affidavit for the search warrant was conclusory and lacking PC, it wasn't so lacking that the GFE shouldn't apply

The court concludes that the affidavit was lacking in probable cause for the search because it was conclusory. Nevertheless, the issuing magistrate did not abandon her judicial role, and the good faith exception would be applied to sustain the search. United States v. Farlee, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 175351 (D. S.D. October 9, 2012) (R&R), adopted 910 F. Supp. 2d 1174 (D. S.D. 2012)*:

Here, the issuing judge signed both warrants after she read the affidavits submitted by Detective LeBeau. Although probable cause did not exist based on the terse and conclusory nature of the affidavits, this Court cannot conclude Judge Jeffries abandoned her judicial role. ...

[T]his is not one of those "unusual cases in which exclusion will further the purposes of the exclusionary rule" because the judge did not completely abandon her judicial role and the search was not objectively unconstitutional. Leon, 468 U.S. at 918. This Court adopts Judge Moreno's Report and Recommendation in refusing to suppress the physical evidence because the good faith exception to the warrant requirement applies.

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by John Wesley Hall
Criminal Defense Lawyer and
  Fourth Amendment consultant
Little Rock, Arkansas
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2009 to date:

2013-14 Term:
  Riley v. California, granted Jan.17, argued Apr. 29 (ScotusBlog)
  United States v. Wurie, granted Jan.17, argued Apr. 29 (ScotusBlog)
  Plumhoff v. Rickard, granted Nov. 15, argued Mar. 4 (ScotusBlog)
  Stanton v. Sims, 134 S.Ct. 3, 187 L. Ed. 2d 341 (Nov. 4, 2013) (per curiam)
  Navarette v. California, granted Oct.1, argued Jan. 21 (ScotusBlog)
  Fernandez v. California, 134 S.Ct. 1126, 188 L. Ed. 2d 25 (Feb. 25) (ScotusBlog)

2012-13 Term:
  Maryland v. King, 133 S.Ct. 1958, 186 L.Ed.2d 1 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Missouri v. McNeeley, 133 S.Ct. 1552, 185 L.Ed.2d 696 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Bailey v. United States, 133 S.Ct. 1031, 185 L.Ed.2d 19 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Florida v. Harris, 133 S.Ct. 1050, 185 L.Ed.2d 61 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Florida v. Jardines, 133 S.Ct. 1409, 185 L.Ed.2d 495 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Clapper v. Amnesty International USA, 133 S.Ct. 1138, 185 L.Ed.2d 264 (2013) (ScotusBlog)

2011-12 Term:
  Ryburn v. Huff, 132 S.Ct. 987, 181 L.Ed.2d 966 (2012) (other blog)
  Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders, 132 S.Ct. 1510, 182 L.Ed.2d 566 (2012) (ScotusBlog)
  United States v. Jones, 132 S.Ct. 945, 181 L.Ed.2d 911 (2012) (ScotusBlog)
  Messerschmidt v. Millender, 132 S.Ct. 1235, 182 L.Ed.2d 47 (2012) (ScotusBlog)

2010-11 Term:
  Kentucky v. King, 131 S.Ct. 1849, 179 L.Ed.2d 865 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Camreta v. Greene, 131 S.Ct. 2020, 179 L.Ed.2d 1118 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Ashcroft v. al-Kidd, 131 S.Ct. 2074, 179 L.Ed.2d 1149 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Davis v. United States, 131 S.Ct. 2419, 180 L.Ed.2d 285 (2011) (ScotusBlog)

2009-10 Term:

  Michigan v. Fisher, 558 U.S. 45, 130 S.Ct. 546, 175 L.Ed.2d 410 (2009) (per curiam) (ScotusBlog)
  City of Ontario v. Quon, 560 U.S. 746, 130 S.Ct. 2619, 177 L.Ed.2d 216 (2010) (ScotusBlog)

2008-09 Term:
  Herring v. United States, 555 U.S. 135, 129 S.Ct. 695, 172 L.Ed.2d 496 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Pearson v. Callahan, 555 U.S. 223, 129 S.Ct. 808, 172 L.Ed.2d 565 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Arizona v. Johnson, 555 U.S. 323, 129 S.Ct. 781, 172 L.Ed.2d 694 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Arizona v. Gant, 556 U.S. 332, 129 S.Ct. 1710, 173 L.Ed.2d 485 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Safford Unified School District #1 v. Redding, 557 U.S. 364, 129 S.Ct. 2633, 174 L.Ed.2d 354 (2009) (ScotusBlog)

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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."

"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud

"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).

"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).

Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment.
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).

"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).

"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)

"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)

"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).

"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)

"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)

“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)

“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)

"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards

"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]

“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”
Pepé Le Pew

"There is never enough time, unless you are serving it."
Malcolm Forbes

"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)


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