Archives for: November 2012, 18


Permalink 11:11:13 am, by fourth, 118 words, 621 views   English (US)
Categories: General

Reason Science Correspondent Ronald Bailey Talks DNA Testing Without Warrants

Reason Science Correspondent Ronald Bailey Talks DNA Testing Without Warrants on HuffPost Live

Reason Science Correspondent Ronald Bailey appeared on HuffPost Live to talk about the Supreme Court's recent decision to hear a case dealing with the Fourth Amendment implications of taking a DNA sample from an arrestee prior to conviction. Is it just like fingerprints or a violation of civil liberty guarantees of privacy?

Here's the link to the segment, where Bailey favored privacy over prosecution in a debate with other participants including Brian Neman, CEO of the biotech company Sanguine BioSciences, Karen Morrison, former prosecutor and law professor at Georgia State University, and Evan Michael Hess, professor of law at the Southern California Institute of Law.

Permalink 09:19:19 am, by fourth, 134 words, 408 views   English (US)
Categories: General

CA10: Several factors + flight = RS

There were several factors of reasonable suspicion, individually none might be enough but collectively they were. “In this case, several factors—the most important of which was Mr. Guardado's own evasive behavior—converged to create an objectively reasonable suspicion that criminal activity was afoot. Therefore, we hold that the seizure did not violate the Fourth Amendment.” United States v. Guardado, 699 F.3d 1220 (10th Cir. 2012).*

The state’s comment that defendant hesitated before signing the consent to search the car was not important because defendant consented. It was merely mentioned in recounting the facts of finding evidence. Braddy v. State, 111 So. 3d 810 (Fla. 2012).*

The evidence clearly supports the conclusion that the search of the house occurred with probable cause after marijuana was seen after a consent entry. Jones v. State, 318 Ga. App. 614, 734 S.E.2d 450 (2012).*

Permalink 09:03:58 am, by fourth, 108 words, 378 views   English (US)
Categories: General

CA1: Yahoo!'s search of photos in storage with it was a private search

Yahoo! searched defendant’s photo files in its storage, and this was a private search. They received a tip it contained child pornography. United States v. Cameron, 699 F.3d 621 (1st Cir. 2012).*

At the post-trial conference, based on trial testimony, the district court changed its finding from consent to probable cause for the search. This was supported by the record. United States v. Pascual, 502 Fed. Appx. 75 (3d Cir. 2012).*

An officer grabbed defendant’s arm and asked where he was going, and defendant ran. He was not seized by the grabbing for his arm. He was not seized until he was subdued. Henson v. United States, 55 A.3d 859 (D.C. 2012).*

Permalink 08:35:07 am, by fourth, 168 words, 383 views   English (US)
Categories: General

CA3 adopts no REP for "wrongful presence" in stolen car

Defendant was driving a stolen car, and the officer who stopped him was alerted by a license plate reader. He’d robbed a post office and convenience stores of blank money orders. “Although we have not reached the question before, it is hardly surprising that several other courts have held that the possessor of a stolen vehicle lacks standing to challenge a search of the vehicle.” United States v. White, 504 Fed. Appx. 168 (3d Cir. 2012).

Based on wiretaps, officers learned of an impending break-in to steal money from a drug dealer. They came to the scene, and two were running from the house. They had probable cause for the stop and arrest, and the search of the car was valid either as search incident, automobile exception, or the inevitable inventory. United States v. Martinez, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 163990 (D. Mass. November 16, 2012).*

Probable cause developed and that justified the search of defendant’s automobile under the automobile exception. United States v. Boyd, 2012 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 163187 (W.D. Pa. November 15, 2012).*

Permalink 07:38:59 am, by fourth, 344 words, 563 views   English (US)
Categories: General

The blogosphere finally notices the assault on email privacy via the Patraeus affair and email searches

The Stored Communications Act is a legal dinosaur. Technology has left our privacy rights in the "dust," as it were. The blogsphere is finally outraged about the ease of government access to email. Maybe this will get Congress off its lazy ass to do something.

Just a few I've seen:

WSJ: Affair Highlights Uncertainty of Email-Privacy Laws by Ashby Jones and Joe Palazzolo posted yesterday.

Likely the Best One from EFF, of course: When Will our Email Betray Us? An Email Privacy Primer in Light of the Petraeus Saga by Hanni Fakhoury and Kurt Opsahl and Rainey Reitman:

The unfolding scandal that led to the resignation of Gen. David Petraeus, the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, started with some purportedly harassing emails sent from pseudonymous email accounts to Jill Kelley. After the FBI kicked its investigation into high gear, it identified the sender as Paula Broadwell and, ultimately, read massive amounts of private email messages that uncovered an affair between Broadwell and Petraeus (and now, the investigation has expanded to include Gen. John Allen's emails with Kelley). We've received a lot of questions about how this works—what legal process the FBI needs to conduct its email investigation. The short answer? It's complicated.

CNET: Petraeus e-mail affair highlights U.S. privacy law loopholes | Because of the wording of an obscure 1986 federal law, the former CIA director -- and the rest of Americans -- receive less privacy protection than we would for love letters stored under a mattress by Declan McCullagh

WaPo: FBI investigation of Broadwell reveals bureau’s comprehensive access to electronic communications

San Francisco Chronicle: Petraeus scandal reveals threat to privacy

Politico: David Petraeus affair scandal highlights email privacy issues

Reuters: Collateral damage of our surveillance state by Julian Sanchez:

As the surreal sex scandal that forced CIA Director David Petraeus’ resignation reveals another prominent general’s “flirtatious” emails, the serious scandal here may well be the breadth of the FBI’s power to launch fishing expeditions through Americans’ most intimate communications. Will the Patraeus scandal be good for privacy?

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by John Wesley Hall
Criminal Defense Lawyer and
  Fourth Amendment consultant
Little Rock, Arkansas
Contact / The Book
Search and seizure law consulting

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Most recent SCOTUS cases:
2009 to date:

2013-14 Term:
  Riley v. California, granted Jan.17, argued Apr. 29 (ScotusBlog)
  United States v. Wurie, granted Jan.17, argued Apr. 29 (ScotusBlog)
  Plumhoff v. Rickard, granted Nov. 15, argued Mar. 4 (ScotusBlog)
  Stanton v. Sims, 134 S.Ct. 3, 187 L. Ed. 2d 341 (Nov. 4, 2013) (per curiam)
  Navarette v. California, granted Oct.1, argued Jan. 21 (ScotusBlog)
  Fernandez v. California, 134 S.Ct. 1126, 188 L. Ed. 2d 25 (Feb. 25) (ScotusBlog)

2012-13 Term:
  Maryland v. King, 133 S.Ct. 1958, 186 L.Ed.2d 1 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Missouri v. McNeeley, 133 S.Ct. 1552, 185 L.Ed.2d 696 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Bailey v. United States, 133 S.Ct. 1031, 185 L.Ed.2d 19 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Florida v. Harris, 133 S.Ct. 1050, 185 L.Ed.2d 61 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Florida v. Jardines, 133 S.Ct. 1409, 185 L.Ed.2d 495 (2013) (ScotusBlog)
  Clapper v. Amnesty International USA, 133 S.Ct. 1138, 185 L.Ed.2d 264 (2013) (ScotusBlog)

2011-12 Term:
  Ryburn v. Huff, 132 S.Ct. 987, 181 L.Ed.2d 966 (2012) (other blog)
  Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders, 132 S.Ct. 1510, 182 L.Ed.2d 566 (2012) (ScotusBlog)
  United States v. Jones, 132 S.Ct. 945, 181 L.Ed.2d 911 (2012) (ScotusBlog)
  Messerschmidt v. Millender, 132 S.Ct. 1235, 182 L.Ed.2d 47 (2012) (ScotusBlog)

2010-11 Term:
  Kentucky v. King, 131 S.Ct. 1849, 179 L.Ed.2d 865 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Camreta v. Greene, 131 S.Ct. 2020, 179 L.Ed.2d 1118 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Ashcroft v. al-Kidd, 131 S.Ct. 2074, 179 L.Ed.2d 1149 (2011) (ScotusBlog)
  Davis v. United States, 131 S.Ct. 2419, 180 L.Ed.2d 285 (2011) (ScotusBlog)

2009-10 Term:

  Michigan v. Fisher, 558 U.S. 45, 130 S.Ct. 546, 175 L.Ed.2d 410 (2009) (per curiam) (ScotusBlog)
  City of Ontario v. Quon, 560 U.S. 746, 130 S.Ct. 2619, 177 L.Ed.2d 216 (2010) (ScotusBlog)

2008-09 Term:
  Herring v. United States, 555 U.S. 135, 129 S.Ct. 695, 172 L.Ed.2d 496 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Pearson v. Callahan, 555 U.S. 223, 129 S.Ct. 808, 172 L.Ed.2d 565 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Arizona v. Johnson, 555 U.S. 323, 129 S.Ct. 781, 172 L.Ed.2d 694 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Arizona v. Gant, 556 U.S. 332, 129 S.Ct. 1710, 173 L.Ed.2d 485 (2009) (ScotusBlog)
  Safford Unified School District #1 v. Redding, 557 U.S. 364, 129 S.Ct. 2633, 174 L.Ed.2d 354 (2009) (ScotusBlog)

Research Links:
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  FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
  DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download)
  DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)

  Congressional Research Service:
    Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
    Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
    Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
    Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
    Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)

  ACLU on privacy
  Privacy Foundation
  Electronic Privacy Information Center
  Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
  Section 1983 Blog

"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."

"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud

"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).

"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).

Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment.
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).

"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).

"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)

"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)

"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).

"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)

"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)

“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)

“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)

"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards

"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]

“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”
Pepé Le Pew

"There is never enough time, unless you are serving it."
Malcolm Forbes

"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)


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