The motion to suppress did not adequately put the state on notice that the defendant was arguing that no search warrant actually issued. The officer presented an affidavit for a search warrant to the magistrate, but no search warrant. Based on the affidavit alone, the officers conducted the search. The issue first arose during the suppression hearing, and the state made an impromptu argument that the affidavit should suffice, but that did not cure the defense failure to put the state on notice. Young v. State, 282 Ga. 735, 653 S.E.2d 725 (2007):
Again, the question is whether Young's motion to suppress sufficiently put the State on notice that the very existence of a search warrant was being challenged, i.e., that the document that Young himself referred to as the warrant was not in fact a warrant, and that this legal issue would be resolved at the motion to suppress hearing. And it is plain that the State was not on such notice. Examination of the transcript of the suppression hearing compels the conclusion that the State's argument to the trial court was nothing more than an impromptu attempt to respond to Young's unexpected challenge to the lack of an actual search warrant.
. . .
The Court of Appeals did not err in finding waiver under the circumstances of this case.
2255 petitioner could not show that his counsel was ineffective for not arguing inapplicability of the good faith exception under Leon because it would have failed. Seckman v. United States, 2007 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 85798 (E.D. Okla. November 19, 2007).*
A drug search warrant had a "catchall" provision that made it constitutionally overbroad. Only marijuana was mentioned, and meth was found.
"instruments used to manufacture, introduce into the body or deal marijuana," (App. at 28), money records, notes, documents, or videotapes "relating to the use, dealing, or manufacture of marijuana," (id.), instruments used in growing or processing marijuana, paraphernalia "and any other item of contraband which are [sic] evidence of a crime." (Id.) (emphasis supplied).
The evidence sought to be suppressed was all within the coverage of the "catchall" provision, and the state failed to show that it was otherwise in "plain view." Levenduski v. State, 876 N.E.2d 798 (Ind. App. 2007):
In the case before us, by contrast, all the methamphetamine-related evidence Levenduski sought to suppress was obtained pursuant to the illegal "catchall" provision in the warrant and should accordingly have been suppressed. The warrant authorized police to enter Levenduski's house and search for marijuana, hashish, "instruments used to manufacture, introduce into the body or deal marijuana," (App. at 28) (emphasis supplied), money records, notes, documents, or videotapes "relating to the use, dealing, or manufacture of marijuana," (id.) (emphasis supplied), instruments used in growing or processing marijuana, paraphernalia "and any other item of contraband which are [sic] evidence of a crime." (Id.) (emphasis supplied). As to the evidence unrelated to marijuana or hashish, the warrant was invalid to the extent it "[left] the executing officer with discretion," Warren, 760 N.E.2d at 610, and the trial court should have granted Levenduski's motion to suppress that evidence.
The State acknowledges the language in the warrant purporting to authorize a search for and seizure of "any other item of contraband which are [sic] evidence of a crime" is "perhaps a bit too general in its description of the items permitted to be searched for by the warrant." (Br. of the Appellee at 19.) But it asserts the discovery and seizure of the methamphetamine was reasonable because the "methamphetamine evidence" was discovered "primarily in plain view." (Id. at 19-20.) It was not.
. . .
The State has not demonstrated the evidence obtained pursuant to the illegal "catch-all" provision of the search warrant was found in plain view. It therefore should have been suppressed. See Chandler v. State, 816 N.E.2d 464, 468 (Ind. Ct. App. 2004):
Nor is there evidence the marijuana was in plain view. Officer James Walsh testified some marijuana 'was found in the middle bedroom' and 'in the living room.' There was no direct testimony this marijuana was in plain view; as the State bears that burden of proof, we will not presume it was.
(Internal citations and footnote omitted).
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays
down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its
application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect
results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at
bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping
government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having
and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that
the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and
safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing
can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws,
or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment.
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that
bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the
police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater
than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have
frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And
so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his
case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated
here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the
bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly
exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth
Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in
an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to
protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born
to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded
rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men
of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted
intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by
government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose
it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want /
But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists,
and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews,
and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists,
and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for
the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came
for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by
now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”
—Pepé Le Pew
"There is never enough time, unless you are serving it."
"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)