D.N.D.: The fact the state judge issuing the SW represented a potential witness named in the affidavit didn’t make him not “neutral and detached”

The search warrant issuing state judge was not a neutral and detached magistrate just because he previously represented a potential witness in the case whose name was in the affidavit. There certainly was probable cause. Besides, the good faith exception applied. United States v. Brown, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 121334 (D. N.D. July 22, 2019).

There is no question of the credibility of the officer that the stop was objectively justified, so his pretext argument fails. “Once Westbrook stated there was a firearm in his vehicle, the proverbial cat was out of the bag. Based upon their knowledge that Westbrook was a convicted felon and his statement, the officers had probable cause to search the vehicle for evidence of a crime-namely, the firearm.” United States v. Westbrook, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 121698 (E.D. Ky. July 1, 2019),* adopted, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 121257 (E.D. Ky. July 22, 2019).*

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