Defendant was unresponsive in a parked car with the engine running. “The officer’s knocking on Bridgeford’s vehicle window was within the scope of the officer’s community caretaking function. Because the officer was acting within his role as a community caretaker, the officer’s knocking on the window was not an impermissible trespass on Bridgeford’s property and was not an attempt to gather information which required a warrant.” Bridgeford v. Sorel, 2019 ND 153, 2019 N.D. LEXIS 163 (June 27, 2019).
The dog arrived at the traffic stop within minutes and the dog sniff was completed before the paperwork check was completed. The dog’s alert wasn’t shown on the video, but the officer testified the dog did, and that’s what the court finds. United States v. Turner, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 111162 (D. Me. July 3, 2019).*