- LA3: Cell phone ping to locate def in a shooting investigation was exigent
- Marshall Project: I ‘Stood My Ground’ — but It Was the Police Raiding My House
- NYLJ: New York’s Red Flag Law Raises a Red Flag for the Fourth Amendment
- D.P.R.: Cell phone records obtained by SW not self-authenticating as evidence under 902(11)
- W.D.Wis.: No habeas relief for unlawful arrest
online since Feb. 24, 2003 Approx. 350,000 visits (non-robot) since 2012 Approx. 45,000 posts since 2003 (25,700+ on WordPress as of 12/31/22)
Fourth Amendment cases,
citations, and links
Latest Slip Opinions:
U.S. Supreme Court (Home)
Federal Appellate Courts Opinions
FDsys, many district courts, other federal courts
Military Courts: C.A.A.F., Army, AF, N-M, CG, SF
State courts (and some USDC opinions)
Advanced Google Scholar
Google search tips
LII State Appellate Courts
LexisONE free caselaw
Findlaw Free Opinions
To search Search and Seizure on Lexis.com $
S. Ct. Docket
Solicitor General's site
Briefs online (but no amicus briefs)
Oyez Project (NWU)
"On the Docket"–Medill
S.Ct. Monitor: Law.com
S.Ct. Com't'ry: Law.com
General (many free):
Google Scholar | Google
LexisOne Legal Website Directory
Lexis.com (criminal law/ 4th Amd) $
Findlaw.com (4th Amd)
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Resources
FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download)
DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)
Stringrays (ACLU No. Cal.) (pdf)
Congressional Research Service:
--Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)
ACLU on privacy
Electronic Frontier Foundation
NACDL’s Domestic Drone Information Center
Electronic Privacy Information Center
Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
Section 1983 Blog
"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
"Life is not a matter of holding good cards, but of playing a poor hand well."
–Josh Billings (pseudonym of Henry Wheeler Shaw), Josh Billings on Ice, and Other Things (1868) (erroneously attributed to Robert Louis Stevenson, among others)
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"It is a pleasant world we live in, sir, a very pleasant world. There are bad people in it, Mr. Richard, but if there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers."
—Charles Dickens, “The Old Curiosity Shop ... With a Frontispiece. From a Painting by Geo. Cattermole, Etc.” 255 (1848)
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”
---Pepé Le Pew "The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
Website design by Wally Waller, Little Rock
Monthly Archives: August 2023
The target of a search warrant can’t yet get access to the affidavit in support because the case is still under investigation and there is a potential of exposing grand jury witnesses. In re Search Warrants Issued November 30, 2022, … Continue reading
The government suspected defendant of acquiring a pill press and got a sneak and peak warrant to look around and photograph inside his place. Later, they got a search warrant for the place and seized drugs. The government’s knowledge of … Continue reading
Police parking next to a defendant’s car is not a seizure. United States v. Gartrell, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 22719 (6th Cir. Aug. 28, 2023). Covid limitations on visitation at a small hospital wasn’t a Fourth Amendment violation, among other … Continue reading
A person acquitted at trial but arrested with probable cause has no claim. Probable cause for arrest survives an acquittal. Davis v. City of Apopka, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 22680 (11th Cir. Aug. 28, 2023):
Today is my 50th anniversary as a lawyer, sworn in at 9:00 am, Friday August 31, 1973, by Jimmy Hawkins, the Clerk of the Arkansas Supreme Court. (The bar results were out at noon Saturday, August 25th. I don’t remember … Continue reading
There is no due process or judicial ethics restriction on a suppression hearing judge hearing the validity of the warrant he or she issued. State v. Taylor, 2023-Ohio-2995, 2023 Ohio App. LEXIS 2982 n.1 (4th Dist. Aug. 22, 2023):
Defendant officer’s arrest of plaintiff for terrorizing under state law for a social media post joke about the police violated clearly established law and violated the First Amendment, too. Bailey v. Iles, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 22503 (5th Cir. Aug. … Continue reading
“Christopher Montalvo-Flores moved to suppress evidence the Government obtained in its search of his girlfriend’s rental car. The District Court denied his motion, holding that he failed to show he had a reasonable expectation of privacy in that vehicle. We … Continue reading
There was a motion to suppress denied at trial. “Now, seven years later appellant seeks to file a motion to suppress and a motion for a Franks hearing. We believe, however, that the trial court correctly concluded that res judicata … Continue reading
“But this court concluded that ‘Plaintiff-Appellees’ claims against Officer Currie … fall under the Fourth Amendment.’ [Mayfield, 976 F.3d at 486 n.1.] As that opinion explained, ‘in order to bring a First Amendment claim for retaliatory arrest, a plaintiff generally … Continue reading
Even when documents are seized during an ongoing investigation, the target can seek return of privileged documents. The trial court erred in not “affording appellants an opportunity to challenge that determination [of lack of privilege] prior to disclosure.” In re … Continue reading
The search incident of defendant’s backpack during his stop and arrest for a hand-to-hand sale of synthetic marijuana was reasonable. Surveying all SCOTUS search incident cases and cases from many states, the backpack was essentially a part of his “person.” … Continue reading
On a Franks challenge, “Defendant failed to establish that, if additional information about the informant’s credibility had been included, the affidavit would have been insufficient to establish probable cause.” United States v. Carter, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 22478 (9th Cir. … Continue reading
D.Nev.: Clearly established state statute doesn’t translate to clearly established constitutional law
Clearly established state statute doesn’t translate to clearly established constitutional law for § 1983 qualified immunity purposes. Brown v. Tromba, 2023 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 149020 (D. Nev. Aug. 23, 2023).* “In their reply brief the OSA Defendants cite cases concerning … Continue reading
Collective knowledge also applies to reasonable suspicion. State v. Hodge, 2023 Tenn. Crim. App. LEXIS 317 (Aug. 24, 2023). Defendant’s “certified question” for appeal was overbroad. State v. Beech, 2023 Tenn. Crim. App. LEXIS 313 (Aug. 24, 2023).* Defendant was … Continue reading
Undated Instagram messages were still sufficient for the good faith exception to apply to a warrant issued on them. United States v. Mason, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 22367 (5th Cir. Aug. 23, 2023)*:
The affiant for the warrant failed to show nexus, but there was enough nexus for the good faith exception to apply. United States v. Westley, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 22357 (6th Cir. Aug. 22, 2023):
“Although the Supreme Court has expressly declined to hold that a parolee categorically has no expectation of privacy in any context, … Lenhart, as a parolee who was subject to electronic monitoring as a condition of his parole, had no … Continue reading
The geofence warrant here satisfied the requirements of both probable cause and the good faith exception. There aren’t a lot of cases on geofence warrants, but those reaching the merits (and not just GFE) fully support the process here of … Continue reading