- D.Neb.: Initial entry into hotel room was unlawful, but affidavit for SW showed PC before that happened, and SW not suppressed
- Three on ineffective assistance claims
- GA: State privilege against self-incrimination prevents the state from using refusal to submit to a BAC test at trial
- CA5: Ptf’s indictment by a Texas grand jury cuts off his malicious prosecution claim
- D.D.C.: Knotted plastic bag of drugs in waistband was in plain view
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Immigration checkpoints
“Here, the agent articulated several observations which, based on his eight years of experience at this [immigration] checkpoint, indicated that the truck’s spare tire contained contraband. Viewing this testimony in the light most favorable to the Government, and giving due … Continue reading
D.Minn.: The gov’t cites a three-way circuit split on standing in a rental car; the circuit authority controls
Defendant was driving a rental car with permission of the renter, and that gives him standing in this circuit. There is a three way circuit split, and this court can’t resolve that. United States v. Bettis, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS … Continue reading
S.D.Tex.: Border Patrol had RS two vehicles were traveling in tandem during midnight border crossing
The Border Patrol officer had reasonable suspicion to stop defendant’s vehicle for transporting persons across the border in the trunk. Defendant got past the checkpoint, but another officer’s suspicions of a following car were heightened. After two were found in … Continue reading
Defendant’s arrest was without probable cause for violating a no trespassing ordinance. It was a public place, open for business, defendant briefly entered and did nothing wrong. The search incident to the arrest thus fails too. Mistake of law as … Continue reading
On the totality of circumstances, there was reasonable suspicion. “Keeping in mind that border patrol agents, not courts, are trained to detect smugglers, and ‘[t]he facts are to be interpreted in light of a trained officer’s experience,’ United States v. … Continue reading
During an immigration checkpoint on a state highway in Arizona, the smell of marijuana coming from the car allowed the stop to go longer under Rodriguez. “Ruiz-Hernandez has not pointed to any authority, in any context, where law enforcement is … Continue reading
Defendants were U.S. citizens and had already crossed the border. The car had Louisiana plates. They were stopped at the Falfurrias Border Patrol checkpoint and citizenship was quickly resolved, but reasonable suspicion developed for the car to be referred to … Continue reading
An off-duty police officer saw defendant appeared drunk in her car in a Sonic parking lot and called it in. He was a citizen informant. State v. Irwin, 2016 Tenn. Crim. App. LEXIS 841 (Nov. 8, 2016). The search of … Continue reading
An admission defendant had marijuana in the trunk didn’t require the officer to check into whether defendant had a prescription for it. United States v. Robbins, 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 153558 (S.D.Cal. Nov. 3, 2016). Defense counsel did, in fact, … Continue reading
CA9: Defense entitled to discovery on whether San Clemente immigration checkpoint also now a general crime control checkpoint
Defendant sought discovery to show that the San Clemente immigration checkpoint on I-5, sustained 40 years ago in Martinez-Fuerte, had also become a general crime control checkpoint, and the district court denied it. The Court of Appeals held that Rule … Continue reading
Defendant was stopped at an immigration checkpoint at Laredo, saying he was going to San Antonio. The officer found the story dubious, ran the paperwork in seconds, and then got a drug dog which did not alert. Then defendant consented … Continue reading