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- D.Ore.: SW for all emails for 6½ months was overbroad; it could be narrowed for word search
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Community caretaking function
Officers could open defendant’s car door when he was apparently passed out in the front seat. State v. Hall, 2017-Ohio-446, 2017 Ohio App. LEXIS 441 (10th Dist. Feb. 7, 2017):
Police received a 911 call about a suicide by overdose, and the entry into the premises was reasonable. Ames v. King County, 2017 U.S. App. LEXIS 660 (9th Cir. Jan. 13, 2017). Claimant failed to make a Fourth Amendment claim … Continue reading
The officer testified that his body armor accidentally muted the microphone on the body recorder on his belt when he bent over, and this was not a due process violation. There was exigency here for a community caretaking function entry … Continue reading
A convenience store operator called the police to say that a woman was stuck under a BMW in the parking lot. By the time the officer arrived, the car had left so he followed it observing no erratic driving or … Continue reading
“But even if the police lacked probable cause to search the van immediately upon discovering it, the undersigned concludes that Officer Yadlosky was justified in opening the van door to check on the welfare of the occupant inside. Once the … Continue reading
A seizure of the person may be justified under the community caretaking function when the person appears so intoxicated or out of it that he’s a danger to himself or others. McNeal v. State, 2016 Ind. App. LEXIS 408 (Nov. … Continue reading
N.D.Cal.: Lessee of car had standing: “Her actions evinced a possessory interest in the vehicle and its contents”
“The Court finds Defendant had an expectation of privacy because she was the lessee of the rental car. … Although there is some dispute as to whether Defendant renounced control over the car, the Court finds that Defendant’s possessory interest … Continue reading
Two vehicles were stopped on the side of the highway and the driver of one was looking at the back of his truck. Then they started to leave and the officer stopped them. There was no reasonable suspicion for defendant’s … Continue reading
CA8: Def’s admission to friend, relayed to police, that he was assaulting women in house justified warrantless entry
Defendant’s third hand reported admission he was serially assaulting two women in his house justified a warrantless entry. Defendant called his sister who called another who called the police that defendant had just assaulted a woman in his home and … Continue reading
IN: Def mom’s arrest outside of home permitted officers to enter to check on unattended young children
Defendant was stopped at night on the way to the store for milk for her kids for morning, and she was arrested and searched because she smelled of marijuana. She told the officers about the children at home alone. The … Continue reading