- CA6: Alleged inappropriate search of 17-year-old girl before letting her go to bathroom during traffic stop that led to a drug dog and finding nothing gets to go to jury
- W.D.Pa.: Request for CI’s identity was speculative venture here and denied
- NYTimes: Just Don’t Call It Privacy
- PA: Emergency aid entry into home doesn’t permit reentry for accurate recordkeeping
- CA2: On GVR after Carpenter, Second Circuit also holds GFE applies to 2011 SCA order
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Search
CA11: “Inserting a probe into a woman’s vagina is plainly a search when performed by the government.”
Unwilling sonogram by a college in a class is a Fourth Amendment search. “Inserting a probe into a woman’s vagina is plainly a search when performed by the government.” Investigative purpose not required. Doe v. Valencia College Board of Trustees, … Continue reading
The Delaware State Escheater sought an examination of records of Marathon Petroleum, and it refused to comply. The state could not force plaintiff to comply, so there is no search if plaintiff refuses. Marathon Petroleum Corp. v. Cook, 2016 U.S. … Continue reading
MA: That CI’s tip in another case wasn’t good enough doesn’t say much about this one where it was more detailed and better corroborated
The CI’s tip here was detailed and substantially corroborated. As to the CI’s track record, a search was suppressed on his information after this one occurred, but that doesn’t ipso facto impugn his credibility. In the other case, the CI’s … Continue reading
WaPo: The Volokh Conspiracy; Applying the Fourth Amendment to placing calls from a locked phone to identify its owner
WaPo: The Volokh Conspiracy: Applying the Fourth Amendment to placing calls from a locked phone to identify its owner by Orin Kerr:
Field sobriety test is a seizure, but it is not a search under Fourth Amendment or the more inclusive state constitution. State v. Mecham, 2016 Wash. LEXIS 695 (June 16, 2016):
Opening defendant’s flip phone to see the home screen is a search under Hicks. The phone was clearly seized under the Fourth Amendment. The government, however, showed probable cause for a search warrant for the phone, and that was independent … Continue reading
“In the present case, the police officers’ attempts to photograph the defendant did not constitute either an unreasonable search or compelled self-incrimination. Because the defendant had no fourth or fifth amendment right to refuse to be photographed, his noncooperation was … Continue reading
A grand jury subpoena was used to get defendant’s palm prints while he was in prison in 2004 to see whether he was connected to a 1997 murder. The grand jury subpoena did not violate the Fourth Amendment or the … Continue reading
SC: Reading a computer SN was a “search” under Hicks, but it was permitted under a valid probation search
Defendant was on probation and believed to be involved in a murder where a red widescreen Acer laptop was taken. Probation officers went to his house to talk to him with reasonable suspicion, and he was sitting there with a … Continue reading
NJ: SW for def’s person made it reasonable to frisk him them move him elsewhere for the search of the person
Officers had a warrant to search defendant’s person and house. When they found him, they conducted a patdown and then moved him elsewhere for the more intrusive search. The second search was objectively reasonable under the warrant, and moving him … Continue reading
W.D.N.Y.: A cell phone is an “instrumentality” of a drug crime; turning on a cell phone to see if it answers is not a “search”
Defendant’s 12 cell phones could be seized as instrumentalities of a drug crime under a search warrant. Calling a number the officers obtained during a wiretap to identify a phone was not an illegal search. Turning on the phones just … Continue reading