- WA: State const. requires nexus between parole violation and scope of probation search
- TechCrunch: Report: Police are now asking Google for data about all mobile devices close to certain crimes
- Today is the 55th anniversary of Gideon v. Wainwright
- WA: While driver has a REP, the owner’s consent controls
- WaPo: After his family died, he threatened to kill himself. So the police took his guns.
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Inevitable discovery
FL2: Fireman reported to LEO that he saw drugs in house; police entry couldn’t rely on inevitable discovery where no effort to get warrant
A fire happened at defendant’s house, and the firefighters put it out. They saw some drugs and drug paraphernalia in the garage and told the police. On resweeping the house yet a second time for no apparent reason other than … Continue reading
UT: State failed to prove inevitable discovery after warrantless entry into home investigating hit and run accident
Two police officers went to defendant’s home because the LPN on the car involved in a hit and run came back to that address. At the house, the housekeeper greeted them and said that defendant probably was driving the car. … Continue reading
D.N.J.: Inevitable discovery applied: (1) officers were drafting affidavit for warrant and (2) there was overwhelming PC
The government proved inevitable discovery applied because (1) they had already started drafting the warrant when the allegedly illegal search occurred and (2) there was overwhelming probable cause for the search. United States v. Restitullo, 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 144269 … Continue reading
Inevitable discovery used to justify a search of a cell phone in 2002 because it might have been unreasonable under Riley from 2014 (no mention of good faith exception applied to pre-Riley searches). Logan v. United States, 2016 D.C. App. … Continue reading
The Seventh Circuit here dealt with a Fourth Amendment IAC claim. The court dealt with the Fourth Amendment merits, which was far easier, rather than get into the complexity of Stone v. Powell deterrence issue under a § 2254 claim. … Continue reading
Defendant’s admission that she “trashed” defendant’s stuff and it was in her hotel room was probable cause to believe there was evidence of a crime, but there was no exigency for a warrantless entry. Simply arguing that the government could … Continue reading
Aside from the detailed tip the police had about defendant, the officer saw the bulge of a gun, and that was reasonable suspicion. United States v. Bridges, 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 95367 (E.D.Mich. July 21, 2016).* Defendant’s patdown at the … Continue reading
CA6: The govt fails on its burden on independent source after an illegal search; deterrence rationale of exclusionary rule applies
The police conducted an illegal search then got a search warrant. The District Court suppressed, and the Sixth Circuit affirms finding the government did not satisfy the independent source rule. Moreover, it finds the deterrence rationale of the exclusionary rule … Continue reading
WI S.Ct. decides inevitable discovery for first time and it overcomes a statement obtained in bad faith
Wisconsin Supreme Court decides the inevitable discovery rule for the first time. Despite officer’s bad faith in obtaining a statement without proper Miranda warnings, the evidence is clear to the Supreme Court that the search would have occurred without statement. … Continue reading
IA: Def’s search may have violated “plain feel” when drugs removed, but search incident would have occurred shortly
The search of defendant may have violated “plain feel” because the drugs in his pocket obviously weren’t a weapon, it was inevitably discovered because it was the product of a search incident for finding drugs on the car. Stephen v. … Continue reading
S.D.N.Y.: Arrest for avoiding subway fare led to inevitably finding gun; good explanation of analytical steps
Officers had probable cause to stop defendant for using the service gate at the Bronx 233d St. subway station without paying. He was a frequent flyer, as it were, and that led to a custodial arrest. He had a knife … Continue reading