- CA11: The lack of even arguable PC for ptf’s arrest denies the officer QI
- MA: The fact co-conspirators coordinated in planning the crime was nexus to def’s cell phone
- NBC News: The FBI’s warrant system for spying on Americans is a mess, the IG report shows
- Reason: The FBI Will Be Audited to See How Frequently They Screw Up Other FISA Warrants
- Vox: How to avoid a dystopian future of facial recognition in law enforcement
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Plain view, feel, smell
N.D.Fla.: No 4A requirement a car left in a parking lot on def’s arrest couldn’t be towed and inventoried
The driver of the vehicle was a serial violator of the state statute on driving on a suspended license. When he was caught this time, the vehicle was on a parking lot and the officer elected to have it towed, … Continue reading
D.Minn.: Car being stuck in snow and key fob not there doesn’t nullify application of the automobile exception
A car stuck in the snow at the end of the alley and defendant without the key fob is still mobile for the automobile exception. “Any temporary loss of mobility is insufficient to take Williams’s case outside the automobile exception.” … Continue reading
AL: Failure to have arrest warrant in hand under state law voids the arrest and the search incident that occurred; Heien inapplicable
Defendant was unreasonably and mistakenly arrested without the officer having the arrest warrant in hand as required by state law, and the search incident to the arrest is suppressed. The court finds Heien and the good faith exception inapplicable because … Continue reading
Defense counsel wasn’t ineffective for not raising Riley before it was decided, and the case was tried just before Riley. Once Riley was issued, defense counsel tried to get it into the case by a motion for new trial. Other … Continue reading
Officers looked through defendant’s vehicle windows when it was parked with a flashlight during a nighttime stop, and that wasn’t an unreasonable search. In the vehicle was meth in plain view. State v. Brown, 2019-Ohio-3684, 2019 Ohio App. LEXIS 3766 … Continue reading
NYTimes: Officers Said They Smelled Pot. The Judge Called Them Liars. By Joseph Goldstein: (“Courts in New York have long ruled that if a car smells like pot, the police can search it. But now, a backlash is mounting.”).
W.D.Mich.: Smell of MJ in a MMJ state may still provide PC for search; defendant has to have documentation justifying possession
The smell of marijuana coming from a car in a MMJ state can still provide probable cause. The occupants have to produce proof of compliance with the law, and then they might be immune from arrest. United States v. Trevino, … Continue reading
MD: In a MJ decrim state, smell of MJ on the person may be PC to search a vehicle but not search a person or arrest
“In the post-decriminalization era, the mere odor of marijuana coupled with possession of what is clearly less than ten grams of marijuana, absent other circumstances, does not grant officers probable cause to effectuate an arrest and conduct a search incident … Continue reading
CA5: Courts don’t scutinize the words CBP officers use at immigration checkpoints for Rodriguez purposes
At an immigration checkpoint stop, courts will not scrutinize the specific words the officers use to question people about their status, as in “can I see your face” to match it to a picture? Rodriguez doesn’t quite control, and that … Continue reading
In a felon in possession case, there was a prior illegal search by state troopers. ATF picked up the case immediately and applied for a search warrant that included the information from the illegal search, and there was independent evidence … Continue reading
S.D.Fla.: Search incident and community caretaking exceptions can’t support govt’s search of def’s messenger bag days later
The government’s search incident theory to sustain a search of defendant’s messenger bag days after his arrest is rejected. “The fundamental purpose of the search incident to arrest exception is to ensure safety and safeguard evidence. Neither of these concerns … Continue reading