- NC: Going to back door after no answer in a knock-and-talk violates Jardines
- OH2: Owner of real property has no power to consent to search of visitor’s or co-tenant’s property
- KY: A court order doesn’t need to be titled “search warrant” to be considered one.
- KY: State’s comment on refusal to consent to DUI test was prejudicial and error
- CA3: Doing drug deals from the car parked behind the house was nexus
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Reasonable suspicion
OH4: Def’s coming to site of execution of SW and then hanging around next door justified a detention and frisk
Defendant came to the site of execution of a search warrant and was justifiably detained. “First, the court found that Deputy Robison was justified as part of his efforts to secure a safe search site because Collins arrived on the … Continue reading
Defendant didn’t raise the constitutionality of satellite-based monitoring in the trial court, so it’s waived for appeal. He also can’t bring it up by certiorari. State v. DeJesus, 2019 N.C. App. LEXIS 384 (May 7, 2019). Reasonable suspicion developed at … Continue reading
Officers heard nearby gunshots and approached the only person in the vicinity with guns drawn and did a frisk of the person. The frisk was justified by reasonable suspicion, and drawing firearms didn’t convert the stop into a seizure. State … Continue reading
Typographical error in the search warrant (648 South 21st Street rather than 748 South 21st Street) would be overlooked under the good faith exception where the correct property was searched. United States v. Carey, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 74140 (M.D. … Continue reading
While tribes generally do not have criminal jurisdiction over non-Indians, tribal officers can stop people for apparent offenses on tribal lands. Defendant’s pretextual stop argument is rejected because there was an objective basis for it. United States v. Santistevan, 2019 … Continue reading
D.Nev.: Def’s stop for jaywalking at an uncontrolled intersection didn’t justify his patdown for weapons
Defendant’s stop for jaywalking at an uncontrolled intersection didn’t justify his patdown for weapons. United States v. Jacobs, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 70241 (D. Nev. Apr. 25, 2019). Summary judgment for existence of probable cause in a § 1983 case … Continue reading
“Applying these principles to the facts of this case, the Court finds Moreno’s encounter with the officers was consensual until Sergeant Meola, without Moreno’s consent, initiated a protective frisk by touching Moreno’s outer clothing and the bulge he saw under … Continue reading
Because the drug dog got right there, the dog sniff didn’t extend the stop in violation of Rodriguez. United States v. Thorn, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 70781 (W.D. Ky. Apr. 26, 2019). Defendant argues that his case was like Rodriguez, … Continue reading
“Body camera footage corroborated the detectives’ testimony that the circumstances reasonably suggested Defendant may have been armed and that a pat-down search was needed to ensure officer safety. …. When faced with an uncooperative and seemingly agitated individual suspected of … Continue reading
New facts after the stop are not required to extend the stop, as long as there is reasonable suspicion with the stop. Brown v. State, 2019 WY 42, 2019 Wyo. LEXIS 44 (Apr. 19, 2019). Pre-Carpenter obtaining of CSLI was … Continue reading
Reasonable suspicion defendant was involved with drugs does not equate with “armed and dangerous.” Without minimizing the danger weapons would create, it’s a dangerous precedent to go that far just based on officers’ experience. United States v. Gallegos, 2019 U.S. … Continue reading
The CLSI search warrant was obtained 3½ years before Carpenter, and assuming for the sake of argument that a warrant was required. It clearly showed probable cause to get the information. United States v. Johnson, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 65896 … Continue reading