- CA11: The lack of even arguable PC for ptf’s arrest denies the officer QI
- MA: The fact co-conspirators coordinated in planning the crime was nexus to def’s cell phone
- NBC News: The FBI’s warrant system for spying on Americans is a mess, the IG report shows
- Reason: The FBI Will Be Audited to See How Frequently They Screw Up Other FISA Warrants
- Vox: How to avoid a dystopian future of facial recognition in law enforcement
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Emergency / exigency
Plaintiff’s body cavity search for a baggie of drugs in her vagina was reasonable by exigent circumstances because of a legitimate fear that she could be harmed and overdose if the bag leaked. Carbone v. Salem, 2019 U.S. App. LEXIS … Continue reading
W.D.Ky.: Stop of one suspect created exigency that occupants might destroy evidence; entry justified
The stop of one suspect created exigent circumstances for entry into the premises to freeze it until a warrant could be obtained. The police reasonably feared that occupants would learn of the stop and destroy evidence. On entry, there was … Continue reading
Defense counsel’s failure to object to the search of his hotel room wasn’t prejudicial because inevitable discovery applied. He was accused of brandishing a gun shortly before, and the gun hadn’t been found. Officers had probable cause to get a … Continue reading
ID: State’s claim of exigency for warrantless entry into house was unsupported; suppression affirmed
Defendant was allegedly selling tainted marijuana from his house. Police did a warrantless entry with exigency as the excuse. There wasn’t any claim that anybody inside was in distress, and no questions about it. Suppression affirmed. State v. Sessions, 2019 … Continue reading
D.Md.: Failure to get a SW for BAC required suppression here; well established procedures were in place
A stop on a U.S. Park property led to a warrantless blood draw which is suppressed because there was no effort to get a warrant despite a well-known procedure in place to do so. “Further, the government’s argument that the … Continue reading
W.D.Pa.: 4A doesn’t require closer questioning of one claiming a serious emergency that proved to be false
Officers responded to a 911 call that six shotgun toting men broke into a house. They talked to the caller at the scene. The front door was open. They knocked and announced and entered. Doing a protective sweep of the … Continue reading
Officers on patrol heard gunshots and arrived within 35 seconds and saw a group of men dispersing. The directed then to stop while shining flashlights on them, and the directed the men to pull up their shirts. Only defendant didn’t, … Continue reading
CA6: Officers acted reasonably in entering house based on dispatcher’s call of young man threatening mother with knife or gun or both
“The facts here indicate that a reasonable person in the officers’ position would indeed believe that entry was necessary to prevent physical harm. The reasonableness standard of the Fourth Amendment requires us to examine the officers’ actions in response to … Continue reading
After an accident where defendant was alleged to have killed a motorcyclist, defendant waited for the police at a gas station. They took him to the scene and then arrested him. This was followed by a warrantless blood draw. The … Continue reading
Officers came to defendant’s home for a knock-and-talk, and he saw them and fled, and the USMJ credited that the officers could see him discard a drug container. The court finds this was hot pursuit. “Of course, the Versailles police … Continue reading
TX14: Exigency permitted seizure of cell phone where officer thought def was deleting things from it anticipating its search
The officer was justified in seizing defendant’s cell phone when there was probable cause and it appeared that defendant might be deleting things from it. Also, no great detail required to identify a cell phone for a search warrant. Gutierrez … Continue reading
Looking in the porch window is a violation of the curtilage and a search. Here, however, it was justified by the exigency of officer safety. United States v. Macdowell, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 139432 (W.D. Va. Aug. 19, 2019). As … Continue reading