- IN: Landlord saw blood in the property and called the police; this was a valid emergency entry
- CA3: Affidavit for SW was fair on its face and showing of PC, so officer gets QI for execution
- U.S. News & World Report: AP Explains: How a Phone May Have Steered Hunt for Bomber
- Courthouse News Service: ACLU Asks Greyhound to Stop Letting Customs Officers Harass Passengers
- Tennessean: Opinion | Tennessee Supreme Court must resist chipping away at Fourth Amendment rights
online since Feb. 24, 2003
WebPage Visits: real non-robot hits since 2010; approx. 25k posts since 2003
Fourth Amendment cases,
citations, and links
Latest Slip Opinions:
U.S. Supreme Court (Home)
Federal Appellate Courts Opinions
FDsys, many district courts, other federal courts, other
Military Courts: C.A.A.F., Army, AF, N-M, CG
State courts (and some USDC opinions)
Advanced Google Scholar
Google search tips
LII State Appellate Courts
LexisONE free caselaw
Findlaw Free Opinions
To search Search and Seizure on Lexis.com $
S. Ct. Docket
Solicitor General's site
Briefs online (but no amicus briefs)
Oyez Project (NWU)
"On the Docket"–Medill
S.Ct. Monitor: Law.com
S.Ct. Com't'ry: Law.com
General (many free):
Google Scholar | Google
LexisOne Legal Website Directory
Lexis.com (criminal law/ 4th Amd) $
Findlaw.com (4th Amd)
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Resources
FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download)
DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)
Stringrays (ACLU No. Cal.) (pdf)
Congressional Research Service:
--Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)
ACLU on privacy
Electronic Frontier Foundation
NACDL’s Domestic Drone Information Center
Electronic Privacy Information Center
Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
Section 1983 Blog
"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
Website design by Wally Waller, Little Rock
Category Archives: Consent
The court declines to adopt the R&R that defendant abandoned or had no reasonable expectation of privacy in a shopping bag by defendant setting it down on gym bleachers while he was in the gym playing basketball. United States v. … Continue reading →
The record supports that defendant consented to his probation search. Giving the alarm code helps show consent. There was no objection to the probation search at any time. United States v. Wilson, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 8815 (D. Neb. Jan. … Continue reading →
Defendant was a passenger in his own car, and it was stopped by the police. The driver gave consent, and it was binding on the owner passenger. State v. Hill, 298 Neb. 675, 2018 Neb. LEXIS (Jan. 19, 2018). When … Continue reading →
E.D.Pa.: Officer’s changed testimony about consent makes court find gov’t didn’t meet burden on consent
“After indicating that Baez verbally consented to the search of the Ford Escape, Officer Mahoney changed her testimony and indicated that she did not remember how Baez gave consent to search the vehicle. Yet, somehow, she remembers that consent was … Continue reading →
The officer’s minor errors on the paperwork for the inventory don’t show that was pretextual for a criminal search or otherwise unreasonable. United States v. Lillard, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 6613 (D. Neb. Jan. 16, 2018) (wrong vehicle model, failing … Continue reading →
Condé Nast Traveler: Why Hotel ‘Do Not Disturb’ Signs Are Disappearing by Mark Ellwood Your right to sleeping in may come second to some bigger issues.
This is another Albuquerque bus station luggage sweep. The officers did not manipulate the baggage; they just opened the container and looked at them. Defendant’s detention was not by consent, and that Fourth Amendment violation led to her abandonment. “The … Continue reading →
Consent was to “take a look around.” Instead, a complete search occurred, and that violated the scope of consent. Moreover, directions to the consenter show that she was under police control and not free to leave and that factors into … Continue reading →
Defendant consented to a search of his pockets, and the officer exceeded that consent by searching his socks. State v. Ferrell, 2018 Ohio App. LEXIS 18 (11th Dist. Jan. 3, 2018). Defendant was arrested for assault and battery on a … Continue reading →
D.Md.: While def’s statement is suppressed for a Miranda violation, he still consented to a search of his car during the suppressed statement
While defendant’s confession was suppressed for a Miranda violation, his consent to search was still valid because his will was not overborne. United States v. Woodland, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 319 (D. Md. Jan. 2, 2018):
The court finds defendant consented to a search of his bag on a bus by a shrug of his shoulders. United States v. Salas-Lopez, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 212709 (W.D. Mo. Nov. 16, 2017), adopted, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 212286 … Continue reading →
OH2: Using a car protective spray on interior expecting a search to occur is tampering with evidence
Spraying a car interior protective spray on the inside of a car involved in a crime when expecting that a search would occur for fingerprints and DNA supported defendant’s conviction for tampering with evidence. State v. Scott, 2017-Ohio-9316, 2017 Ohio … Continue reading →