- WA: State const. requires nexus between parole violation and scope of probation search
- TechCrunch: Report: Police are now asking Google for data about all mobile devices close to certain crimes
- Today is the 55th anniversary of Gideon v. Wainwright
- WA: While driver has a REP, the owner’s consent controls
- WaPo: After his family died, he threatened to kill himself. So the police took his guns.
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Protective sweep
Officers entered with an arrest warrant. Defendant’s attempt to flee to the back of the house justified a protective sweep of that area because of the possibility there might be others back there. United States v. Thompson, 2017 U.S. Dist. … Continue reading
A protective sweep wasn’t justified because the arrest was outside the apartment building away from view. Exigency also didn’t exist because there was no justification for thinking that there might be an injured person inside. Pace v. Commonwealth, 2017 Ky. … Continue reading
D.Minn.: 911 call about two men entering house with guns couldn’t be corroborated at all at scene; entry for protective sweep unreasonable
“The information provided to the police was that a caller called 911 and said ‘there’s two men that came inside the house with guns.’ (Transcript at 9.) The police were also given the address of the subject house. (Id.) Based … Continue reading
D.Conn.: Protective weapons search of nightstand for a weapon invalid where def removed from house in handcuffs
The court does not believe an officer who claimed to have seen crack cocaine in a black opaque drawstring bag that was closed in the first search of his person. The court also does not believe that a much later … Continue reading
A protective sweep of a closed room requires reasonable suspicion that an attack could be launched from the room. After defendant was arrested, there was no reasonable suspicion there was anybody else in the house; therefore, no reasonable suspicion. Johnson … Continue reading
D.Ore.: Def stopped at roadblock from Malheur National Wildlife Refuge could be searched again after he went back to talk others into leaving
Defendant arrived at the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in January 2016. After arrests and the killing of one, he decided to leave and encountered a roadblock where he was briefly searched. Officers asked if he would go back to the … Continue reading
A shots fired call is not carte blanche exigency–the totality of circumstances must still be examined. Here, the court finds no exigency for the warrantless entry or protective sweep and that the exclusionary rule should be applied. The costs aren’t … Continue reading
D.S.C.: No REP in a rental rented by another and loaned to def where he wasn’t on the rental contract
Defendant had no reasonable expectation of privacy in a rental car rented by another and loaned to him when the rental company didn’t authorize him as a driver. United States v. Dorsey, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 21112 (D.S.C. Feb. 15, … Continue reading
The government moved for DNA by buccal swab from four defendants, and it does not have to show a need for genetic testing under Maryland v. King. United States v. Proctor, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 16618 (D.D.C. Feb. 2, 2017). … Continue reading
M.D.La.: Officer’s claim of a burglary in progress and that a protective sweep was justified was completely unjustified
It should have been apparent to the officers that the defendant was a friend of the homeowner and was a guest in the premises, and their entry was unjustified under a claim of a burglary in progress or that a … Continue reading
M.D.Pa.: Girlfriend’s misstatement about presence of other persons in house during probation search justified protective sweep
“[O]fficers went to Mr. Owens’ residence to conduct a probationary check. After knocking on the door, officers were told by Mr. Owens’ girlfriend, Ms. Haqq, that he was not present and that she was the only adult at the residence. … Continue reading
Defendant was reported to have assaulted people outside his house with a small bat and a brandishing a firearm. Police arrived, and he ran inside. Police kicked the door in, secured him, cleared the house [a protective sweep] putting the … Continue reading